Sisneros Joseph A.
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PreprintUse of the swim bladder and lateral line in near-field sound source localization by fishes( 2014-03) Coffin, Allison B. ; Zeddies, David G. ; Fay, Richard R. ; Brown, Andrew D. ; Alderks, Peter W. ; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A. ; Mohr, Robert A. ; Gray, Michael D. ; Rogers, Peter H. ; Sisneros, Joseph A.We investigated the roles of the swim bladder and the lateral line system in sound localization behavior by the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). Reproductive female midshipman underwent either surgical deflation of the swim bladder or cryoablation of the lateral line and were then tested in a monopolar sound source localization task. Fish with nominally “deflated” swim bladders performed similar to sham-deflated controls; however, post-experiment evaluation of swim bladder deflation revealed that a majority of “deflated” fish (88%, 7 of the 8 fish) that exhibited positive phonotaxis had partially inflated swim bladders. In total, 95% (21/22) of fish that localized the source had at least partially inflated swim- bladders, indicating that pressure reception is likely required for sound source localization. In lateral line experiments, no difference was observed in the proportion of females exhibiting positive phonotaxis with ablated- (37%) versus sham-ablated (47%) lateral line systems. These data suggest that the lateral line system is likely not required for sound source localization, although this system may be important for fine- tuning the approach to the sound source. We found that midshipman can solve the 180° ambiguity of source direction in the shallow water of our test tank, which is similar to their nesting environment. We also found that the potential directional cues (phase relationship between pressure and particle motion) in shallow water differs from a theoretical free-field. Therefore, the general question of how fish use acoustic pressure cues to solve the 180° ambiguity of source direction from the particle motion vector remains unresolved.
PreprintCatecholaminergic connectivity to the inner ear, central auditory, and vocal motor circuitry in the plainfin midshipman fish porichthys notatus( 2014-03-28) Forlano, Paul M. ; Kim, Spencer D. ; Krzyminska, Zuzanna M. ; Sisneros, Joseph A.Although the neuroanatomical distribution of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons has been well documented across all vertebrate classes, few studies have examined CA connectivity to physiologically and anatomically identified neural circuitry that controls behavior. The goal of this study was to characterize CA distribution in the brain and inner ear of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) with particular emphasis on their relationship with anatomically labeled circuitry that both produces and encodes social acoustic signals in this species. Neurobiotin labeling of the main auditory end organ, the saccule, combined with tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence (TH-ir) revealed a strong CA innervation of both the peripheral and central auditory system. Diencephalic TH-ir neurons in the periventricular posterior tuberculum, known to be dopaminergic, send ascending projections to the ventral telencephalon and prominent descending projections to vocal–acoustic integration sites, notably the hindbrain octavolateralis efferent nucleus, as well as onto the base of hair cells in the saccule via nerve VIII. Neurobiotin backfills of the vocal nerve in combination with TH-ir revealed CA terminals on all components of the vocal pattern generator, which appears to largely originate from local TH-ir neurons but may include input from diencephalic projections as well. This study provides strong neuroanatomical evidence that catecholamines are important modulators of both auditory and vocal circuitry and acoustic-driven social behavior in midshipman fish. This demonstration of TH-ir terminals in the main end organ of hearing in a nonmammalian vertebrate suggests a conserved and important anatomical and functional role for dopamine in normal audition.