Appeltans Ward

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Appeltans
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Ward
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  • Article
    BioTIME : a database of biodiversity time series for the Anthropocene
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-07-24) Dornelas, Maria ; Antao, Laura H. ; Moyes, Faye ; Bates, Amanda E. ; Magurran, Anne E. ; Adam, Dusan ; Akhmetzhanova, Asem A. ; Appeltans, Ward ; Arcos, Jose Manuel ; Arnold, Haley ; Ayyappan, Narayanan ; Badihi, Gal ; Baird, Andrew H. ; Barbosa, Miguel ; Barreto, Tiago Egydio ; Bässler, Claus ; Bellgrove, Alecia ; Belmaker, Jonathan ; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro ; Bett, Brian J. ; Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Błazewicz, Magdalena ; Blowes, Shane A. ; Bloch, Christopher P. ; Bonebrake, Timothy C. ; Boyd, Susan ; Bradford, Matt ; Brooks, Andrew J. ; Brown, James H. ; Bruelheide, Helge ; Budy, Phaedra ; Carvalho, Fernando ; Castaneda-Moya, Edward ; Chen, Chaolun Allen ; Chamblee, John F. ; Chase, Tory J. ; Collier, Laura Siegwart ; Collinge, Sharon K. ; Condit, Richard ; Cooper, Elisabeth J. ; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C. ; Cotano, Unai ; Crow, Shannan Kyle ; Damasceno, Gabriella ; Davies, Claire H. ; Davis, Robert A. ; Day, Frank P. ; Degraer, Steven ; Doherty, Tim S. ; Dunn, Timothy E. ; Durigan, Giselda ; Duffy, J. Emmett ; Edelist, Dor ; Edgar, Graham J. ; Elahi, Robin ; Elmendorf, Sarah C. ; Enemar, Anders ; Ernest, S. K. Morgan ; Escribano, Ruben ; Estiarte, Marc ; Evans, Brian S. ; Fan, Tung-Yung ; Farah, Fabiano Turini ; Fernandes, Luiz Loureiro ; Farneda, Fabio Z. ; Fidelis, Alessandra ; Fitt, Robert ; Fosaa, Anna Maria ; Franco, Geraldo Antonio Daher Correa ; Frank, Grace E. ; Fraser, William R. ; García, Hernando ; Gatti, Roberto Cazzolla ; Givan, Or ; Gorgone-Barbosa, Elizabeth ; Gould, William A. ; Gries, Corinna ; Grossman, Gary D. ; Gutierrez, Julio R. ; Hale, Stephen ; Harmon, Mark E. ; Harte, John ; Haskins, Gary ; Henshaw, Donald L. ; Hermanutz, Luise ; Hidalgo, Pamela ; Higuchi, Pedro ; Hoey, Andrew S. ; Hoey, Gert Van ; Hofgaard, Annika ; Holeck, Kristen ; Hollister, Robert D. ; Holmes, Richard ; Hoogenboom, Mia ; Hsieh, Chih-hao ; Hubbell, Stephen P. ; Huettmann, Falk ; Huffard, Christine L. ; Hurlbert, Allen H. ; Ivanauskas, Natalia Macedo ; Janík, David ; Jandt, Ute ; Jazdzewska, Anna ; Johannessen, Tore ; Johnstone, Jill F. ; Jones, Julia ; Jones, Faith A. M. ; Kang, Jungwon ; Kartawijaya, Tasrif ; Keeley, Erin C. ; Kelt, Douglas A. ; Kinnear, Rebecca ; Klanderud, Kari ; Knutsen, Halvor ; Koenig, Christopher C. ; Kortz, Alessandra R. ; Kral, Kamil ; Kuhnz, Linda A. ; Kuo, Chao-Yang ; Kushner, David J. ; Laguionie-Marchais, Claire ; Lancaster, Lesley T. ; Lee, Cheol Min ; Lefcheck, Jonathan S. ; Levesque, Esther ; Lightfoot, David ; Lloret, Francisco ; Lloyd, John D. ; Lopez-Baucells, Adria ; Louzao, Maite ; Madin, Joshua S. ; Magnusson, Borgbor ; Malamud, Shahar ; Matthews, Iain ; McFarland, Kent P. ; McGill, Brian ; McKnight, Diane ; McLarney, William O. ; Meador, Jason ; Meserve, Peter L. ; Metcalfe, Daniel J. ; Meyer, Christoph F. J. ; Michelsen, Anders ; Milchakova, Nataliya ; Moens, Tom ; Moland, Even ; Moore, Jon ; Moreira, Carolina Mathias ; Muller, Jorg ; Murphy, Grace ; Myers-Smith, Isla H. ; Myster, Randall W. ; Naumov, Andrew ; Neat, Francis ; Nelson, James A. ; Nelson, Michael Paul ; Newton, Stephen F. ; Norden, Natalia ; Oliver, Jeffrey C. ; Olsen, Esben M. ; Onipchenko, Vladimir G. ; Pabis, Krzysztof ; Pabst, Robert J. ; Paquette, Alain ; Pardede, Sinta ; Paterson, David M. ; Pelissier, Raphael ; Penuelas, Josep ; Perez-Matus, Alejandro ; Pizarro, Oscar ; Pomati, Francesco ; Post, Eric ; Prins, Herbert H. T. ; Priscu, John C. ; Provoost, Pieter ; Prudic, Kathleen L. ; Pulliainen, Erkki ; Ramesh, B. B. ; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil ; Rassweiler, Andrew ; Rebelo, Jose Eduardo ; Reed, Daniel C. ; Reich, Peter B. ; Remillard, Suzanne M. ; Richardson, Anthony J. ; Richardson, J. Paul ; Rijn, Itai van ; Rocha, Ricardo ; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H. ; Rixen, Christian ; Robinson, Kevin P. ; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro ; Rossa-Feres, Denise de Cerqueira ; Rudstam, Lars ; Ruhl, Henry A. ; Ruz, Catalina S. ; Sampaio, Erica M. ; Rybicki, Nancy ; Rypel, Andrew ; Sal, Sofia ; Salgado, Beatriz ; Santos, Flavio A. M. ; Savassi-Coutinho, Ana Paula ; Scanga, Sara ; Schmidt, Jochen ; Schooley, Robert ; Setiawan, Fakhrizal ; Shao, Kwang-Tsao ; Shaver, Gaius R. ; Sherman, Sally ; Sherry, Thomas W. ; Sicinski, Jacek ; Sievers, Caya ; da Silva, Ana Carolina ; da Silva, Fernando Rodrigues ; Silveira, Fabio L. ; Slingsby, Jasper ; Smart, Tracey ; Snell, Sara J. ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Souza, Gabriel B. G. ; Souza, Flaviana Maluf ; Souza, Vinícius Castro ; Stallings, Christopher D. ; Stanforth, Rowan ; Stanley, Emily H. ; Sterza, Jose Mauro ; Stevens, Maarten ; Stuart-Smith, Rick ; Suarez, Yzel Rondon ; Supp, Sarah ; Tamashiro, Jorge Yoshio ; Tarigan, Sukmaraharja ; Thiede, Gary P. ; Thorn, Simon ; Tolvanen, Anne ; Toniato, Maria Teresa Zugliani ; Totland, Orjan ; Twilley, Robert R. ; Vaitkus, Gediminas ; Valdivia, Nelson ; Vallejo, Martha Isabel ; Valone, Thomas J. ; Van Colen, Carl ; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Venturoli, Fabio ; Verheye, Hans M. ; Vianna, Marcelo ; Vieira, Rui P. ; Vrska, Tomas ; Vu, Con Quang ; Vu, Lien Van ; Waide, Robert B. ; Waldock, Conor ; Watts, David ; Webb, Sara ; Wesołowski, Tomasz ; White, Ethan P. ; Widdicombe, Claire E. ; Wilgers, Wilgers ; Williams, Richard ; Williams, Stefan B. ; Williamson, Mark ; Willig, Michael R. ; Willis, Trevor J. ; Wipf, Sonja ; Woods, Kerry D. ; Woehler, Eric ; Zawada, Kyle ; Zettler, Michael L.
    The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community‐led open‐source database of biodiversity time series. Our goal is to accelerate and facilitate quantitative analysis of temporal patterns of biodiversity in the Anthropocene. The database contains 8,777,413 species abundance records, from assemblages consistently sampled for a minimum of 2 years, which need not necessarily be consecutive. In addition, the database contains metadata relating to sampling methodology and contextual information about each record. BioTIME is a global database of 547,161 unique sampling locations spanning the marine, freshwater and terrestrial realms. Grain size varies across datasets from 0.0000000158 km2 (158 cm2) to 100 km2 (1,000,000,000,000 cm2). BioTIME records span from 1874 to 2016. The minimal temporal grain across all datasets in BioTIME is a year. BioTIME includes data from 44,440 species across the plant and animal kingdoms, ranging from plants, plankton and terrestrial invertebrates to small and large vertebrates.
  • Article
    Data management strategy to improve global use of ocean acidification data and information
    (The Oceanography Society, 2015-06) Garcia, Hernan E. ; Cosca, Catherine E. ; Kozyr, Alex ; Mayorga, Emilio ; Chandler, Cynthia L. ; Thomas, Robert W. ; O’Brien, Kevin ; Appeltans, Ward ; Hankin, Steve ; Newton, Jan A. ; Gutierrez, Angelica ; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre ; Hansson, Lina ; Zweng, Melissa ; Pfeil, Benjamin
    Ocean acidification (OA) refers to the general decrease in pH of the global ocean as a result of absorbing anthropogenic CO2 emitted in the atmosphere since preindustrial times (Sabine et al., 2004). There is, however, considerable variability in ocean acidification, and many careful measurements need to be made and compared in order to obtain scientifically valid information for the assessment of patterns, trends, and impacts over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and to understand the processes involved. A single country or institution cannot undertake measurements of worldwide coastal and open ocean OA changes; therefore, international cooperation is needed to achieve that goal. The OA data that have been, and are being, collected represent a significant public investment. To this end, it is critically important that researchers (and others) around the world are easily able to find and use reliable OA information that range from observing data (from time-series moorings, process studies, and research cruises), to biological response experiments (e.g., mesocosm), data products, and model output.
  • Article
    Globally consistent quantitative observations of planktonic ecosystems
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-04-25) Lombard, Fabien ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Waite, Anya M. ; Vogt, Meike ; Uitz, Julia ; Stemmann, Lars ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Schulz, Jan ; Romagnan, Jean-Baptiste ; Picheral, Marc ; Pearlman, Jay ; Ohman, Mark D. ; Niehoff, Barbara ; Möller, Klas O. ; Miloslavich, Patricia ; Lara-Lpez, Ana ; Kudela, Raphael M. ; Lopes, Rubens M. ; Kiko, Rainer ; Karp-Boss, Lee ; Jaffe, Jules S. ; Iversen, Morten H. ; Irisson, Jean-Olivier ; Fennel, Katja ; Hauss, Helena ; Guidi, Lionel ; Gorsky, Gabriel ; Giering, Sarah L. C. ; Gaube, Peter ; Gallager, Scott M. ; Dubelaar, George ; Cowen, Robert K. ; Carlotti, François ; Briseño-Avena, Christian ; Berline, Leo ; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J. ; Bax, Nicholas ; Batten, Sonia ; Ayata, Sakina Dorothée ; Artigas, Luis Felipe ; Appeltans, Ward
    In this paper we review the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles in general—and plankton in particular—in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-microns to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and composition of plankton, provide data necessary to constrain and improve ecosystem and biogeochemical models, and forecast changes in marine ecosystems in light of climate change. In this paper we begin by providing the motivation for plankton observations, quantification and diversity qualification on a global scale. We then expand on the state-of-the-art, detailing a variety of relevant and (mostly) mature technologies and measurements, including bulk measurements of plankton, pigment composition, uses of genomic, optical and acoustical methods as well as analysis using particle counters, flow cytometers and quantitative imaging devices. We follow by highlighting the requirements necessary for a plankton observing system, the approach to achieve it and associated challenges. We conclude with ranked action-item recommendations for the next 10 years to move toward our vision of a holistic ocean-wide plankton observing system. Particularly, we suggest to begin with a demonstration project on a GO-SHIP line and/or a long-term observation site and expand from there, ensuring that issues associated with methods, observation tools, data analysis, quality assessment and curation are addressed early in the implementation. Global coordination is key for the success of this vision and will bring new insights on processes associated with nutrient regeneration, ocean production, fisheries and carbon sequestration.
  • Article
    Toward a new data standard for combined marine biological and environmental datasets - expanding OBIS beyond species occurrences
    (Pensoft, 2017-01-09) De Pooter, Daphnis ; Appeltans, Ward ; Bailly, Nicolas ; Bristol, Sky ; Deneudt, Klaas ; Eliezer, Menashè ; Fujioka, Ei ; Giorgetti, Alessandra ; Goldstein, Philip ; Lewis, Mirtha ; Lipizer, Marina ; Mackay, Kevin ; Marin, Maria ; Moncoiffe, Gwenaelle ; Nikolopoulou, Stamatina ; Provoost, Pieter ; Rauch, Shannon ; Roubicek, Andres ; Torres, Carlos ; van de Putte, Anton ; Vandepitte, Leen ; Vanhoorne, Bart ; Vinci, Matteo ; Wambiji, Nina ; Watts, David ; Salas, Eduardo Klein ; Hernandez, Francisco
    The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) is the world’s most comprehensive online, open-access database of marine species distributions. OBIS grows with millions of new species observations every year. Contributions come from a network of hundreds of institutions, projects and individuals with common goals: to build a scientific knowledge base that is open to the public for scientific discovery and exploration and to detect trends and changes that inform society as essential elements in conservation management and sustainable development. Until now, OBIS has focused solely on the collection of biogeographic data (the presence of marine species in space and time) and operated with optimized data flows, quality control procedures and data standards specifically targeted to these data. Based on requirements from the growing OBIS community to manage datasets that combine biological, physical and chemical measurements, the OBIS-ENV-DATA pilot project was launched to develop a proposed standard and guidelines to make sure these combined datasets can stay together and are not, as is often the case, split and sent to different repositories. The proposal in this paper allows for the management of sampling methodology, animal tracking and telemetry data, biological measurements (e.g., body length, percent live cover, ...) as well as environmental measurements such as nutrient concentrations, sediment characteristics or other abiotic parameters measured during sampling to characterize the environment from which biogeographic data was collected. The recommended practice builds on the Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) standard and on practices adopted by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). It consists of a DwC Event Core in combination with a DwC Occurrence Extension and a proposed enhancement to the DwC MeasurementOrFact Extension. This new structure enables the linkage of measurements or facts - quantitative and qualitative properties - to both sampling events and species occurrences, and includes additional fields for property standardization. We also embrace the use of the new parentEventID DwC term, which enables the creation of a sampling event hierarchy. We believe that the adoption of this recommended practice as a new data standard for managing and sharing biological and associated environmental datasets by IODE and the wider international scientific community would be key to improving the effectiveness of the knowledge base, and will enhance integration and management of critical data needed to understand ecological and biological processes in the ocean, and on land.
  • Article
    Satellite sensor requirements for monitoring essential biodiversity variables of coastal ecosystems
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-03-06) Muller-Karger, Frank E. ; Hestir, Erin ; Ade, Christiana ; Turpie, Kevin ; Roberts, Dar A. ; Siegel, David A. ; Miller, Robert J. ; Humm, David ; Izenberg, Noam ; Keller, Mary ; Morgan, Frank ; Frouin, Robert ; Dekker, Arnold G. ; Gardner, Royal ; Goodman, James ; Schaeffer, Blake ; Franz, Bryan A. ; Pahlevan, Nima ; Mannino, Antonio ; Concha, Javier A. ; Ackleson, Steven G. ; Cavanaugh, Kyle C. ; Romanou, Anastasia ; Tzortziou, Maria ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Pavlick, Ryan ; Freeman, Anthony ; Rousseaux, Cecile S. ; Dunne, John P. ; Long, Matthew C. ; Salas, Eduardo Klein ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Goes, Joachim I. ; Letelier, Ricardo M. ; Kavanaugh, Maria T. ; Roffer, Mitchell ; Bracher, Astrid ; Arrigo, Kevin R. ; Dierssen, Heidi M. ; Zhang, Xiaodong ; Davis, Frank W. ; Best, Benjamin D. ; Guralnick, Robert P. ; Moisan, John R. ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Kudela, Raphael M. ; Mouw, Colleen B. ; Barnard, Andrew H. ; Palacios, Sherry ; Roesler, Collin S. ; Drakou, Evangelia G. ; Appeltans, Ward ; Jetz, Walter
    The biodiversity and high productivity of coastal terrestrial and aquatic habitats are the foundation for important benefits to human societies around the world. These globally distributed habitats need frequent and broad systematic assessments, but field surveys only cover a small fraction of these areas. Satellite‐based sensors can repeatedly record the visible and near‐infrared reflectance spectra that contain the absorption, scattering, and fluorescence signatures of functional phytoplankton groups, colored dissolved matter, and particulate matter near the surface ocean, and of biologically structured habitats (floating and emergent vegetation, benthic habitats like coral, seagrass, and algae). These measures can be incorporated into Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs), including the distribution, abundance, and traits of groups of species populations, and used to evaluate habitat fragmentation. However, current and planned satellites are not designed to observe the EBVs that change rapidly with extreme tides, salinity, temperatures, storms, pollution, or physical habitat destruction over scales relevant to human activity. Making these observations requires a new generation of satellite sensors able to sample with these combined characteristics: (1) spatial resolution on the order of 30 to 100‐m pixels or smaller; (2) spectral resolution on the order of 5 nm in the visible and 10 nm in the short‐wave infrared spectrum (or at least two or more bands at 1,030, 1,240, 1,630, 2,125, and/or 2,260 nm) for atmospheric correction and aquatic and vegetation assessments; (3) radiometric quality with signal to noise ratios (SNR) above 800 (relative to signal levels typical of the open ocean), 14‐bit digitization, absolute radiometric calibration <2%, relative calibration of 0.2%, polarization sensitivity <1%, high radiometric stability and linearity, and operations designed to minimize sunglint; and (4) temporal resolution of hours to days. We refer to these combined specifications as H4 imaging. Enabling H4 imaging is vital for the conservation and management of global biodiversity and ecosystem services, including food provisioning and water security. An agile satellite in a 3‐d repeat low‐Earth orbit could sample 30‐km swath images of several hundred coastal habitats daily. Nine H4 satellites would provide weekly coverage of global coastal zones. Such satellite constellations are now feasible and are used in various applications.