Colosi John A.

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Last Name
Colosi
First Name
John A.
ORCID
0000-0003-3817-8798

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Now showing 1 - 19 of 19
  • Article
    Entropy and scintillation analysis of acoustical beam propagation through ocean internal waves
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2005-03) Morozov, Andrey K. ; Colosi, John A.
    Parabolic equation numerical simulations of waveguide acoustical beam propagation in an ocean of Garrett–Munk internal waves are used to examine the range evolution of beam properties such as beamwidth (both spectral and spatial), Shannon entropy, and scintillation index, as a function of beam angle. Simulations are carried out at 250- and 125-Hz acoustic frequencies. The ray trajectories associated with these beams are predominantly chaotic or exponentially sensitive to initial conditions and/or medium perturbations. At long range near saturation, the finite-frequency beams show a constant rate of change of Shannon entropy with range, independent of acoustic frequency. This full-wave rate of entropy is of the same order of magnitude as the average rate of entropy for the ray trajectories associated with this beam. Finite-range Lyapunov exponents provide the estimates of ray entropy rate or Kolmogorov–Siani entropy. The correspondence between full-wave and ray entropies suggests a full-wave manifestation of ray chaos, but only once statistical saturation is obtained. In spite of this correspondence, the simulated acoustical beams expand diffusively not exponentially (or explosively).
  • Article
    Broadband classification and statistics of echoes from aggregations of fish measured by long-range, mid-frequency sonar
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2017-06-13) Jones, Benjamin A. ; Stanton, Timothy K. ; Colosi, John A. ; Gauss, Roger C. ; Fialkowski, Joseph M. ; Jech, J. Michael
    For horizontal-looking sonar systems operating at mid-frequencies (1–10 kHz), scattering by fish with resonant gas-filled swimbladders can dominate seafloor and surface reverberation at long-ranges (i.e., distances much greater than the water depth). This source of scattering, which can be difficult to distinguish from other sources of scattering in the water column or at the boundaries, can add spatio-temporal variability to an already complex acoustic record. Sparsely distributed, spatially compact fish aggregations were measured in the Gulf of Maine using a long-range broadband sonar with continuous spectral coverage from 1.5 to 5 kHz. Observed echoes, that are at least 15 decibels above background levels in the horizontal-looking sonar data, are classified spectrally by the resonance features as due to swimbladder-bearing fish. Contemporaneous multi-frequency echosounder measurements (18, 38, and 120 kHz) and net samples are used in conjunction with physics-based acoustic models to validate this approach. Furthermore, the fish aggregations are statistically characterized in the long-range data by highly non-Rayleigh distributions of the echo magnitudes. These distributions are accurately predicted by a computationally efficient, physics-based model. The model accounts for beam-pattern and waveguide effects as well as the scattering response of aggregations of fish.
  • Article
    The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory deep-water acoustic propagation experiments in the Philippine Sea
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2013-10) Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Mercer, James A. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Dushaw, Brian D. ; Baggeroer, Arthur B. ; Heaney, Kevin D. ; D'Spain, Gerald L. ; Colosi, John A. ; Stephen, Ralph A. ; Kemp, John N. ; Howe, Bruce M. ; Van Uffelen, Lora J. ; Wage, Kathleen E.
    A series of experiments conducted in the Philippine Sea during 2009–2011 investigated deep-water acoustic propagation and ambient noise in this oceanographically and geologically complex region: (i) the 2009 North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) Pilot Study/Engineering Test, (ii) the 2010–2011 NPAL Philippine Sea Experiment, and (iii) the Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation of the 2010–2011 NPAL Philippine Sea Experiment. The experimental goals included (a) understanding the impacts of fronts, eddies, and internal tides on acoustic propagation, (b) determining whether acoustic methods, together with other measurements and ocean modeling, can yield estimates of the time-evolving ocean state useful for making improved acoustic predictions, (c) improving our understanding of the physics of scattering by internal waves and spice, (d) characterizing the depth dependence and temporal variability of ambient noise, and (e) understanding the relationship between the acoustic field in the water column and the seismic field in the seafloor. In these experiments, moored and ship-suspended low-frequency acoustic sources transmitted to a newly developed distributed vertical line array receiver capable of spanning the water column in the deep ocean. The acoustic transmissions and ambient noise were also recorded by a towed hydrophone array, by acoustic Seagliders, and by ocean bottom seismometers.
  • Article
    Modal analysis of the range evolution of broadband wavefields in the North Pacific Ocean : low mode numbers
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2012-06) Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Brown, Michael G. ; Duda, Timothy F. ; Mercer, James A. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Howe, Bruce M. ; Colosi, John A.
    The results of mode-processing measurements of broadband acoustic wavefields made in the fall of 2004 as part of the Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment (LOAPEX) in the eastern North Pacific Ocean are reported here. Transient wavefields in the 50–90 Hz band that were recorded on a 1400 -m long 40 element vertical array centered near the sound channel axis are analyzed. This array was designed to resolve low-order modes. The wavefields were excited by a ship-suspended source at seven ranges, between approximately 50 and 3200 km, from the receiving array. The range evolution of broadband modal arrival patterns corresponding to fixed mode numbers (“modal group arrivals”) is analyzed with an emphasis on the second (variance) and third (skewness) moments. A theory of modal group time spreads is described, emphasizing complexities associated with energy scattering among low-order modes. The temporal structure of measured modal group arrivals is compared to theoretical predictions and numerical simulations. Theory, simulations, and observations generally agree. In cases where disagreement is observed, the reasons for the disagreement are discussed in terms of the underlying physical processes and data limitations.
  • Article
    Tales of the venerable Honolulu tide gauge
    (American Meteorological Society, 2006-06) Colosi, John A. ; Munk, Walter H.
    Surface expressions of internal tides constitute a significant component of the total recorded tide. The internal component is strongly modulated by the time-variable density structure, and the resulting perturbation of the recorded tide gives a welcome look at twentieth-century interannual and secular variability. Time series of mean sea level hSL(t) and total recorded M2 vector aTT(t) are extracted from the Honolulu 1905–2000 and Hilo 1947–2000 (Hawaii) tide records. Internal tide parameters are derived from the intertidal continuum surrounding the M2 frequency line and from a Cartesian display of aTT(t), yielding aST = 16.6 and 22.1 cm, aIT = 1.8 and 1.0 cm for surface and internal tides at Honolulu and Hilo, respectively. The proposed model aTT(t) = aST + aIT cosθIT(t) is of a phase-modulated internal tide generated by the surface tide at some remote point and traveling to the tide gauge with velocity modulated by the underlying variable density structure. Mean sea level hSL(t) [a surrogate for the density structure and hence for θIT(t)] is coherent with aIT(t) within the decadal band 0.2–0.5 cycles per year. For both the decadal band and the century drift the recorded M2 amplitude is high when sea level is high, according to δaTT = O(0.1δhSL). The authors attribute the recorded secular increase in the Honolulu M2 amplitude from aTT = 16.1 to 16.9 cm between 1915 and 2000 to a 28° rotation of the internal tide vector in response to ocean warming.
  • Article
    Weakly dispersive modal pulse propagation in the North Pacific Ocean
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2013-10) Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Brown, Michael G. ; Duda, Timothy F. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Mercer, James A. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Howe, Bruce M. ; Colosi, John A.
    The propagation of weakly dispersive modal pulses is investigated using data collected during the 2004 long-range ocean acoustic propagation experiment (LOAPEX). Weakly dispersive modal pulses are characterized by weak dispersion- and scattering-induced pulse broadening; such modal pulses experience minimal propagation-induced distortion and are thus well suited to communications applications. In the LOAPEX environment modes 1, 2, and 3 are approximately weakly dispersive. Using LOAPEX observations it is shown that, by extracting the energy carried by a weakly dispersive modal pulse, a transmitted communications signal can be recovered without performing channel equalization at ranges as long as 500 km; at that range a majority of mode 1 receptions have bit error rates (BERs) less than 10%, and 6.5% of mode 1 receptions have no errors. BERs are estimated for low order modes and compared with measurements of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and modal pulse spread. Generally, it is observed that larger modal pulse spread and lower SNR result in larger BERs.
  • Article
    Deep seafloor arrivals : an unexplained set of arrivals in long-range ocean acoustic propagation
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2009-08) Stephen, Ralph A. ; Bolmer, S. Thompson ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Buck, Linda J. ; Mercer, James A. ; Colosi, John A. ; Howe, Bruce M.
    Receptions, from a ship-suspended source (in the band 50–100 Hz) to an ocean bottom seismometer (about 5000 m depth) and the deepest element on a vertical hydrophone array (about 750 m above the seafloor) that were acquired on the 2004 Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment in the North Pacific Ocean, are described. The ranges varied from 50 to 3200 km. In addition to predicted ocean acoustic arrivals and deep shadow zone arrivals (leaking below turning points), “deep seafloor arrivals,” that are dominant on the seafloor geophone but are absent or very weak on the hydrophone array, are observed. These deep seafloor arrivals are an unexplained set of arrivals in ocean acoustics possibly associated with seafloor interface waves.
  • Article
    Temporal and spatial dependence of a yearlong record of sound propagation from the Canada Basin to the Chukchi Shelf
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2020-09-23) Ballard, Megan S. ; Badiey, Mohsen ; Sagers, Jason D. ; Colosi, John A. ; Turgut, Altan ; Pecknold, Sean ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A.
    The Pacific Arctic Region has experienced decadal changes in atmospheric conditions, seasonal sea-ice coverage, and thermohaline structure that have consequences for underwater sound propagation. To better understand Arctic acoustics, a set of experiments known as the deep-water Canada Basin acoustic propagation experiment and the shallow-water Canada Basin acoustic propagation experiment was conducted in the Canada Basin and on the Chukchi Shelf from summer 2016 to summer 2017. During the experiments, low-frequency signals from five tomographic sources located in the deep basin were recorded by an array of hydrophones located on the shelf. Over the course of the yearlong experiment, the surface conditions transitioned from completely open water to fully ice-covered. The propagation conditions in the deep basin were dominated by a subsurface duct; however, over the slope and shelf, the duct was seen to significantly weaken during the winter and spring. The combination of these surface and subsurface conditions led to changes in the received level of the sources that exceeded 60 dB and showed a distinct spacio-temporal dependence, which was correlated with the locations of the sources in the basin. This paper seeks to quantify the observed variability in the received signals through propagation modeling using spatially sparse environmental measurements.
  • Article
    Entropy rate defined by internal wave scattering in long-range propagation
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2015-09-08) Morozov, Andrey K. ; Colosi, John A.
    The reduction of information capacity of the ocean sound channel due to scattering by internal waves is a potential problem for acoustic communication, navigation, and remote sensing over long ranges. In spite of recent progress in research on acoustic signal scattering by random internal waves and the fact that random internal waves are ubiquitous in the world oceans, there is no clear understanding of how these waves influence data communication performance. The entropy decrease resulting from scattering by internal waves is an important measure of information loss. Here a rigorous calculation of the entropy is carried out using second moment transport theory equations with random sound-speed perturbations obeying the Garrett–Munk internal-wave model. It is shown that full-wave rate of entropy is of the same order of magnitude as the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy and Lyapunov exponents for the relevant ray trajectories. The correspondence between full-wave and ray entropies suggests a correspondence between full-wave scattering and ray chaos near statistical saturation. The relatively small level of entropy rate during propagation through the random internal-wave field shows that scattering by internal waves is likely not an essential limitation for data rate and channel capacity.
  • Technical Report
    Analysis of Deep Seafloor Arrivals observed on NPAL04
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2012-12) Stephen, Ralph A. ; Bolmer, S. Thompson ; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Mercer, James A. ; Colosi, John A. ; Howe, Bruce M.
    This report gives an overview of the analysis that was done on Deep Seafloor Arrivals since they were initially presented in Stephen et al (2009). All of the NPAL04/LOAPEX (North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory, 2004/ Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment) data on three ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) at ~5,000m depth and the deepest element of the deep vertical line array (DVLA) at 4250m depth has been analyzed. A distinctive pattern of late arrivals was observed on the three OBSs for transmissions from T500 to T2300. The delays of these arrivals with respect to the parabolic equation predicted (PEP) path were the same for all ranges from 500 to 2300km, indicating that the delay was introduced near the receivers. At 500km range the same arrival was observed throughout the water column on the DVLA. We show that arrivals in this pattern converted from a PEP path to a bottom-diffracted surface reflected (BDSR) path at an off-geodesic seamount.
  • Article
    Echo statistics of individual and aggregations of scatterers in the water column of a random, oceanic waveguide
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2014-07) Jones, Benjamin A. ; Colosi, John A. ; Stanton, Timothy K.
    The relative contributions of various physical factors to producing non-Rayleigh distributions of echo magnitudes in a waveguide are examined. Factors that are considered include (1) a stochastic, range-dependent sound-speed profile, (2) a directional acoustic source, (3) a variable scattering response, and (4) an extended scattering volume. A two-way parabolic equation model, coupled with a stochastic internal wave model, produces realistic simulations of acoustic propagation through a complex oceanic sound speed field. Simulations are conducted for a single frequency (3 kHz), monostatic sonar with a narrow beam (5° −3 dB beam width). The randomization of the waveguide, range of propagation, directionality of the sonar, and spatial extent of the scatterers each contribute to the degree to which the echo statistics are non-Rayleigh. Of critical importance are the deterministic and stochastic processes that induce multipath and drive the one-way acoustic pressure field to saturation (i.e., complex-Gaussian statistics). In this limit predictable statistics of echo envelopes are obtained at all ranges. A computationally low-budget phasor summation can successfully predict the probability density functions when the beam pattern and number of scatterers ensonified are known quantities.
  • Article
    Equations for normal-mode statistics of sound scattering by a rough elastic boundary in an underwater waveguide, including backscattering
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2017-09) Morozov, Andrey K. ; Colosi, John A.
    Underwater sound scattering by a rough sea surface, ice, or a rough elastic bottom is studied. The study includes both the scattering from the rough boundary and the elastic effects in the solid layer. A coupled mode matrix is approximated by a linear function of one random perturbation parameter such as the ice-thickness or a perturbation of the surface position. A full two-way coupled mode solution is used to derive the stochastic differential equation for the second order statistics in a Markov approximation.
  • Article
    Statistics of low-frequency normal-mode amplitudes in an ocean with random sound-speed perturbations : shallow-water environments
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2012-02) Colosi, John A. ; Duda, Timothy F. ; Morozov, Andrey K.
    Second- and fourth-moment mode-amplitude statistics for low-frequency ocean sound propagation through random sound-speed perturbations in a shallow-water environment are investigated using Monte Carlo simulations and a transport theory for the cross-mode coherence matrix. The acoustic observables of mean and mean square intensity are presented and the importance of adiabatic effects and cross-mode coherence decay are emphasized. Using frequencies of 200 and 400 Hz, transport theory is compared with Monte Carlo simulations in a canonical shallow-water environment representative of the summer Mid-Atlantic Bight. Except for ranges less than a horizontal coherence length of the sound structure, the intensity moments from the two calculations are in good agreement. Corrections for the short range behavior are presented. For these frequencies the computed mode coupling rates are extremely small, and the propagation is strongly adiabatic with a rapid decay of cross-mode coherence. Coupling effects are predicted to be important at kilohertz frequencies. Decay of cross-mode coherence has important implications for acoustic interactions with nonlinear internal waves: For the case in which the acoustic path is not at glancing incidence with a nonlinear internal-wave front, adiabatic phase randomizing effects lead to a significantly reduced influence of the nonlinear waves on both mean and mean square intensity.
  • Article
    Statistics of normal mode amplitudes in an ocean with random sound-speed perturbations : cross-mode coherence and mean intensity
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2009-09) Colosi, John A. ; Morozov, Andrey K.
    In this paper Creamer's [(1996). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2825–2838] transport equation for the mode amplitude coherence matrix resulting from coupled mode propagation through random fields of internal waves is examined in more detail. It is shown that the mode energy equations are approximately independent of the cross mode coherences, and that cross mode coherences and mode energy can evolve over very similar range scales. The decay of cross mode coherence depends on the relative mode phase randomization caused by coupling and adiabatic effects, each of which can be quantified by the theory. This behavior has a dramatic effect on the acoustic field second moments like mean intensity. Comparing estimates of the coherence matrix and mean intensity from Monte Carlo simulation, and the transport equations, good agreement is demonstrated for a 100-Hz deep-water example.
  • Article
    Deep seafloor arrivals in long range ocean acoustic propagation
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2013-10) Stephen, Ralph A. ; Bolmer, S. Thompson ; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Mercer, James A. ; Colosi, John A. ; Howe, Bruce M.
    Ocean bottom seismometer observations at 5000 m depth during the long-range ocean acoustic propagation experiment in the North Pacific in 2004 show robust, coherent, late arrivals that are not readily explained by ocean acoustic propagation models. These “deep seafloor” arrivals are the largest amplitude arrivals on the vertical particle velocity channel for ranges from 500 to 3200 km. The travel times for six (of 16 observed) deep seafloor arrivals correspond to the sea surface reflection of an out-of-plane diffraction from a seamount that protrudes to about 4100 m depth and is about 18 km from the receivers. This out-of-plane bottom-diffracted surface-reflected energy is observed on the deep vertical line array about 35 dB below the peak amplitude arrivals and was previously misinterpreted as in-plane bottom-reflected surface-reflected energy. The structure of these arrivals from 500 to 3200 km range is remarkably robust. The bottom-diffracted surface-reflected mechanism provides a means for acoustic signals and noise from distant sources to appear with significant strength on the deep seafloor.
  • Article
    A test of basin-scale acoustic thermometry using a large-aperture vertical array at 3250-km range in the eastern North Pacific Ocean
    (Acoustical Society of America, 1999-06) Worcester, Peter F. ; Cornuelle, Bruce D. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Munk, Walter H. ; Howe, Bruce M. ; Mercer, James A. ; Spindel, Robert C. ; Colosi, John A. ; Metzger, Kurt ; Birdsall, Theodore G. ; Baggeroer, Arthur B.
    Broadband acoustic signals were transmitted during November 1994 from a 75-Hz source suspended near the depth of the sound-channel axis to a 700-m long vertical receiving array approximately 3250 km distant in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. The early part of the arrival pattern consists of raylike wave fronts that are resolvable, identifiable, and stable. The later part of the arrival pattern does not contain identifiable raylike arrivals, due to scattering from internal-wave-induced sound-speed fluctuations. The observed ray travel times differ from ray predictions based on the sound-speed field constructed using nearly concurrent temperature and salinity measurements by more than a priori variability estimates, suggesting that the equation used to compute sound speed requires refinement. The range-averaged oceansound speed can be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.05 m/s from the observed ray travel times together with the time at which the near-axial acoustic reception ends, used as a surrogate for the group delay of adiabatic mode 1. The change in temperature over six days can be estimated with an uncertainty of about 0.006 °C. The sensitivity of the travel times to ocean variability is concentrated near the ocean surface and at the corresponding conjugate depths, because all of the resolved ray arrivals have upper turning depths within a few hundred meters of the surface.
  • Technical Report
    NPAL04 OBS data analysis part 1 : kinematics of deep seafloor arrivals
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2008-12) Stephen, Ralph A. ; Bolmer, S. Thompson ; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Van Uffelen, Lora J. ; Mercer, James A. ; Andrew, Rex K. ; Buck, Linda J. ; Colosi, John A. ; Howe, Bruce M.
    These notes provide supporting information for a JASA (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America) LttE (Letter to the Editor) manuscript, "Deep seafloor arrivals: A new class of arrivals in long-range ocean acoustic propagation" (Stephen et al., submitted). It addresses five issues raised by the co-authors: 1) incorrect processing for the time-compressed traces at T2300 and T3200 that appeared in an early version of the LttE (T2300, T3200 … refer to transmissions at 2300, 3200km etc from the DVLA (Deep Vertical Line Array)), 2) processing issues, including the trade-offs between coherent and incoherent stacking and corrections for the effects of moving sources and receivers and tidal currents (Doppler), 4) the distinction between "deep shadow zone arrivals", which occur below the turning points in Parabolic Equation (PE) models, and "deep seafloor arrivals", which appear dominantly on the Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) but are either very weak or absent on the deepest element in the DVLA and do not coincide with turning points in the PE model (some of these OBS late arrivals occur after the finale region), 4) the role of surface-reflected bottomreflected (SRBR) paths in explaining the late arriving energy, and 5) generally reconciling the OBS analysis with work by other North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) investigators and Dushaw et al (1999).
  • Article
    Observations of sound-speed fluctuations in the Beaufort Sea from summer 2016 to summer 2017
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2021-03-05) Kucukosmanoglu, Murat ; Colosi, John A. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A. ; Torres, Daniel J.
    Due to seasonal ice cover, acoustics can provide a unique means for Arctic undersea communication, navigation, and remote sensing. This study seeks to quantify the annual cycle of the thermohaline structure in the Beaufort Sea and characterize acoustically relevant oceanographic processes such as eddies, internal waves, near-inertial waves (NIWs), and spice. The observations are from a seven-mooring, 150-km radius acoustic transceiver array equipped with oceanographic sensors that collected data in the Beaufort Sea from 2016 to 2017. Depth and time variations of the sound speed are analyzed using isopycnal displacements, allowing a separation of baroclinic processes and spice. Compared to lower latitudes, the overall sound speed variability is small with a maximum root mean square of 0.6 m/s. The largest source of variability is spice, most significant in the upper 100 m, followed by eddies and internal waves. The displacement spectrum in the internal wave band is time dependent and different from the Garret-Munk (GM) spectrum. The internal wave energy varied with time averaging 5% of the GM spectrum. The spice sound-speed frequency spectrum has a form very different from the displacement spectrum, a result not seen at lower latitudes. Because sound speed variations are weak, observations of episodic energetic NIWs with horizontal currents up to 20 cm/s have potential acoustical consequences.
  • Article
    Observations of sound-speed fluctuations on the New Jersey continental shelf in the summer of 2006
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2012-02) Colosi, John A. ; Duda, Timothy F. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Lynch, James F. ; Newhall, Arthur E. ; Cornuelle, Bruce D.
    Environmental sensors moored on the New Jersey continental shelf tracked constant density surfaces (isopycnals) for 35 days in the summer of 2006. Sound-speed fluctuations from internal-wave vertical isopycnal displacements and from temperature/salinity variability along isopycnals (spiciness) are analyzed using frequency spectra and vertical covariance functions. Three varieties of internal waves are studied: Diffuse broadband internal waves (akin to waves fitting the deep water Garrett/Munk spectrum), internal tides, and, to a lesser extent, nonlinear internal waves. These internal-wave contributions are approximately distinct in the frequency domain. It is found that in the main thermocline spicy thermohaline structure dominates the root mean square sound-speed variability, with smaller contributions coming from (in order) nonlinear internal waves, diffuse internal waves, and internal tides. The frequency spectra of internal-wave displacements and of spiciness have similar form, likely due to the advection of variable-spiciness water masses by horizontal internal-wave currents, although there are technical limitations to the observations at high frequency. In the low-frequency, internal-wave band the internal-wave spectrum follows frequency to the −1.81 power, whereas the spice spectrum shows a −1.73 power. Mode spectra estimated via covariance methods show that the diffuse internal-wave spectrum has a smaller mode bandwidth than Garrett/Munk and that the internal tide has significant energy in modes one through three.