McIntosh Kyle

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  • Article
    Alkenones as a promising green alternative for waxes in cosmetics and personal care products
    (MDPI AG, 2018-06-05) McIntosh, Kyle ; Smith, Amber ; Young, Lisa K. ; Leitch, Michael A. ; Tiwari, Amit K. ; Reddy, Christopher M. ; O’Neil, Gregory W. ; Liberatore, Matthew W. ; Chandler, Mark ; Baki, Gabriella
    The move toward green, sustainable, natural products has been growing in the cosmetic and personal care industry. Ingredients derived from marine organisms and algae are present in many cosmetic products. In this study, a new green ingredient, a wax (i.e., long-chain alkenones) derived from Isochyrsis sp., was evaluated as an alternative for cosmetic waxes. First, the melting point was determined (71.1–77.4 °C), then the alkenones’ thickening capability in five emollients was evaluated and compared to microcrystalline wax and ozokerite. Alkenones were compatible with three emollients and thickened the emollients similarly to the other waxes. Then, lipsticks and lip balms were formulated with and without alkenones. All products remained stable at room temperature for 10 weeks. Lipstick formulated with alkenones was the most resistant to high temperature. Finally, alkenones were compared to three cosmetic thickening waxes in creams. Viscosity, rheology, and stability of the creams were evaluated. All creams had a gel-like behavior. Both viscosity and storage modulus increased in the same order: cream with alkenones < cetyl alcohol < stearic acid < glyceryl monostearate. Overall, alkenones’ performance was comparable to the other three waxes. Alkenones can thus offer a potential green choice as a new cosmetic structuring agent.
  • Article
    Oral and dermal toxicity of alkenones extracted from Isochrysis species
    (Bioscience Research Institute, 2020-01-01) McIntosh, Kyle ; Sarver, Jeffrey ; Mell, Kristopher ; Terrero, David J. ; Ashby, Charles R., Jr. ; Reddy, Christopher M. ; O’ Neil, Gregory ; Ramapuram, Jayachandra Babu ; Tiwari, Amit K.
    Isochrysis is commercially available marine algae used for animal feed, human nutrient supplements, and biodiesel. The Isochrysis species is one of five genera of haptophytes that produces unique, long-chain lipids known as alkenones that are promising new ingredients for green cosmetics, personal care products and pharmaceutical delivery. However, there is a lack of toxicity data for alkenones in animals, thus limiting their use in humans. In this study, we performed acute oral, acute dermal, and repeated 28-day dermal toxicity studies, using female SAS Sprague Dawley Rats. Our behavioral studies indicated that the specific alkenones had no overt behavioural effects at oral doses up to 4000 mg/kg. In the acute and chronic dermal toxicity studies, the alkenones produced less irritation and did not significantly damage the skin based on the Draize skin reaction scale and trans-epidermal water loss readings compared to the positive control, 1% sodium lauryl sulfate. Overall, our results indicated that alkenones are safe in Sprague Dawley rats, suggesting that they could be used for both oral and dermal formulations, although additional studies will be required.