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Technical ReportLong-term evolution of the coupled boundary layers (STRATUS) mooring recovery and deployment cruise report NOAA Research Vessel R H Brown • cruise RB-01-08 9 October - 25 October 2001(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2002-02) Vallee, Charlotte ; Weller, Robert A. ; Bouchard, Paul R. ; Ostrom, William M. ; Lord, Jeffrey ; Gobat, Jason I. ; Pritchard, Mark ; Westberry, Toby K. ; Hare, Jeffrey E. ; Uttal, Taneil ; Yuter, Sandra ; Rivas, David ; Baumgardner, Darrel ; McCarty, Brandi ; Shannahoff, Jonathan ; Walsh, M. Alexander ; Bahr, Frank B.This report documents the work done on cruise RB-01-08 of the NOAA R/V Ron Brown. This was Leg 2 of R/V Ron Brown’s participation in Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001, a study of air-sea interaction, the atmosphere, and the upper ocean in the eastern tropical Pacific. The science party included groups from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL), the University of Washington (UW), the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and the University Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The work done by these groups is summarized in this report. In addition, the routine underway data collected while aboard R/V Ron Brown is also summarized here.
ArticleSeasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea : 2. Winter circulation(John Wiley & Sons, 2014-04-14) Yao, Fengchao ; Hoteit, Ibrahim ; Pratt, Lawrence J. ; Bower, Amy S. ; Kohl, Armin ; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh ; Rivas, DavidThe shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model's winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow.
ArticleSeasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea : 1. Model validation and summer circulation(John Wiley & Sons, 2014-04-14) Yao, Fengchao ; Hoteit, Ibrahim ; Pratt, Lawrence J. ; Bower, Amy S. ; Kohl, Armin ; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh ; Rivas, DavidThe overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. In the first part of this study, the vertical and horizontal structure of the summer overturning circulation and its dynamical mechanisms are presented from the model results. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. In addition, during late summer two processes associated, respectively, with latitudinally differential heating and increased salinity in the southern Red Sea act together to cause the reversal of the contrast of the vertical density structure and the cessation of the summer overturning circulation. Dynamically, the subsurface northward pressure gradient force is mainly balanced by vertical viscosity resulting from the vertical shear and boundary friction in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb. Unlike some previous studies, the three-layer summer exchange flows in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb do not appear to be hydraulically controlled.