Kolodziejczyk Nicolas

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Last Name
Kolodziejczyk
First Name
Nicolas
ORCID
0000-0002-0751-1351

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Satellite and in situ salinity : understanding near-surface stratification and subfootprint variability

2016-08-31 , Boutin, Jacqueline , Chao, Yi , Asher, William E. , Delcroix, Thierry , Drucker, Robert S. , Drushka, Kyla , Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas , Lee, Tong , Reul, Nicolas , Reverdin, Gilles , Schanze, Julian J. , Soloviev, Alexander , Yu, Lisan , Anderson, Jessica , Brucker, Ludovic , Dinnat, Emmanuel , Santos-Garcia, Andrea , Jones, W. Linwood , Maes, Christophe , Meissner, Thomas , Tang, Wenqing , Vinogradova, Nadya , Ward, Brian

Remote sensing of salinity using satellite-mounted microwave radiometers provides new perspectives for studying ocean dynamics and the global hydrological cycle. Calibration and validation of these measurements is challenging because satellite and in situ methods measure salinity differently. Microwave radiometers measure the salinity in the top few centimeters of the ocean, whereas most in situ observations are reported below a depth of a few meters. Additionally, satellites measure salinity as a spatial average over an area of about 100 × 100 km2. In contrast, in situ sensors provide pointwise measurements at the location of the sensor. Thus, the presence of vertical gradients in, and horizontal variability of, sea surface salinity complicates comparison of satellite and in situ measurements. This paper synthesizes present knowledge of the magnitude and the processes that contribute to the formation and evolution of vertical and horizontal variability in near-surface salinity. Rainfall, freshwater plumes, and evaporation can generate vertical gradients of salinity, and in some cases these gradients can be large enough to affect validation of satellite measurements. Similarly, mesoscale to submesoscale processes can lead to horizontal variability that can also affect comparisons of satellite data to in situ data. Comparisons between satellite and in situ salinity measurements must take into account both vertical stratification and horizontal variability.

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Heat stored in the Earth system: where does the energy go?

2020-09-07 , von Schuckmann, Karina , Cheng, Lijing , Palmer, Matthew D. , Hansen, James , Tassone, Caterina , Aicher, Valentin , Adusumilli, Susheel , Beltrami, Hugo , Boyer, Tim , Cuesta-Valero, Francisco José , Desbruyeres, Damien , Domingues, Catia M. , García-García, Almudena , Gentine, Pierre , Gilson, John , Gorfer, Maximilian , Haimberger, Leopold , Ishii, Masayoshi , Johnson, Gregory C. , Killick, Rachel E. , King, Brian A. , Kirchengast, Gottfried , Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas , Lyman, John , Marzeion, Ben , Mayer, Michael , Monier, Maeva , Monselesan, Didier Paolo , Purkey, Sarah G. , Roemmich, Dean , Schweiger, Axel , Seneviratne, Sonia I. , Shepherd, Andrew , Slater, Donald A. , Steiner, Andrea K. , Straneo, Fiammetta , Timmermans, Mary-Louise , Wijffels, Susan E.

Human-induced atmospheric composition changes cause a radiative imbalance at the top of the atmosphere which is driving global warming. This Earth energy imbalance (EEI) is the most critical number defining the prospects for continued global warming and climate change. Understanding the heat gain of the Earth system – and particularly how much and where the heat is distributed – is fundamental to understanding how this affects warming ocean, atmosphere and land; rising surface temperature; sea level; and loss of grounded and floating ice, which are fundamental concerns for society. This study is a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) concerted international effort to update the Earth heat inventory and presents an updated assessment of ocean warming estimates as well as new and updated estimates of heat gain in the atmosphere, cryosphere and land over the period 1960–2018. The study obtains a consistent long-term Earth system heat gain over the period 1971–2018, with a total heat gain of 358±37 ZJ, which is equivalent to a global heating rate of 0.47±0.1 W m−2. Over the period 1971–2018 (2010–2018), the majority of heat gain is reported for the global ocean with 89 % (90 %), with 52 % for both periods in the upper 700 m depth, 28 % (30 %) for the 700–2000 m depth layer and 9 % (8 %) below 2000 m depth. Heat gain over land amounts to 6 % (5 %) over these periods, 4 % (3 %) is available for the melting of grounded and floating ice, and 1 % (2 %) is available for atmospheric warming. Our results also show that EEI is not only continuing, but also increasing: the EEI amounts to 0.87±0.12 W m−2 during 2010–2018. Stabilization of climate, the goal of the universally agreed United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the Paris Agreement in 2015, requires that EEI be reduced to approximately zero to achieve Earth's system quasi-equilibrium. The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere would need to be reduced from 410 to 353 ppm to increase heat radiation to space by 0.87 W m−2, bringing Earth back towards energy balance. This simple number, EEI, is the most fundamental metric that the scientific community and public must be aware of as the measure of how well the world is doing in the task of bringing climate change under control, and we call for an implementation of the EEI into the global stocktake based on best available science. Continued quantification and reduced uncertainties in the Earth heat inventory can be best achieved through the maintenance of the current global climate observing system, its extension into areas of gaps in the sampling, and the establishment of an international framework for concerted multidisciplinary research of the Earth heat inventory as presented in this study. This Earth heat inventory is published at the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ, https://www.dkrz.de/, last access: 7 August 2020) under the DOI https://doi.org/10.26050/WDCC/GCOS_EHI_EXP_v2 (von Schuckmann et al., 2020).

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On the future of Argo: A global, full-depth, multi-disciplinary array

2019-08-02 , Roemmich, Dean , Alford, Matthew H. , Claustre, Hervé , Johnson, Kenneth S. , King, Brian , Moum, James N. , Oke, Peter , Owens, W. Brechner , Pouliquen, Sylvie , Purkey, Sarah G. , Scanderbeg, Megan , Suga, Koushirou , Wijffels, Susan E. , Zilberman, Nathalie , Bakker, Dorothee , Baringer, Molly O. , Belbeoch, Mathieu , Bittig, Henry C. , Boss, Emmanuel S. , Calil, Paulo H. R. , Carse, Fiona , Carval, Thierry , Chai, Fei , Conchubhair, Diarmuid Ó. , d’Ortenzio, Fabrizio , Dall'Olmo, Giorgio , Desbruyeres, Damien , Fennel, Katja , Fer, Ilker , Ferrari, Raffaele , Forget, Gael , Freeland, Howard , Fujiki, Tetsuichi , Gehlen, Marion , Geenan, Blair , Hallberg, Robert , Hibiya, Toshiyuki , Hosoda, Shigeki , Jayne, Steven R. , Jochum, Markus , Johnson, Gregory C. , Kang, KiRyong , Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas , Körtzinger, Arne , Le Traon, Pierre-Yves , Lenn, Yueng-Djern , Maze, Guillaume , Mork, Kjell Arne , Morris, Tamaryn , Nagai, Takeyoshi , Nash, Jonathan D. , Naveira Garabato, Alberto C. , Olsen, Are , Pattabhi Rama Rao, Eluri , Prakash, Satya , Riser, Stephen C. , Schmechtig, Catherine , Schmid, Claudia , Shroyer, Emily L. , Sterl, Andreas , Sutton, Philip J. H. , Talley, Lynne D. , Tanhua, Toste , Thierry, Virginie , Thomalla, Sandy J. , Toole, John M. , Troisi, Ariel , Trull, Thomas W. , Turton, Jon , Velez-Belchi, Pedro , Walczowski, Waldemar , Wang, Haili , Wanninkhof, Rik , Waterhouse, Amy F. , Waterman, Stephanie N. , Watson, Andrew J. , Wilson, Cara , Wong, Annie P. S. , Xu, Jianping , Yasuda, Ichiro

The Argo Program has been implemented and sustained for almost two decades, as a global array of about 4000 profiling floats. Argo provides continuous observations of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, from the sea surface to 2000 dbar. The successful installation of the Argo array and its innovative data management system arose opportunistically from the combination of great scientific need and technological innovation. Through the data system, Argo provides fundamental physical observations with broad societally-valuable applications, built on the cost-efficient and robust technologies of autonomous profiling floats. Following recent advances in platform and sensor technologies, even greater opportunity exists now than 20 years ago to (i) improve Argo’s global coverage and value beyond the original design, (ii) extend Argo to span the full ocean depth, (iii) add biogeochemical sensors for improved understanding of oceanic cycles of carbon, nutrients, and ecosystems, and (iv) consider experimental sensors that might be included in the future, for example to document the spatial and temporal patterns of ocean mixing. For Core Argo and each of these enhancements, the past, present, and future progression along a path from experimental deployments to regional pilot arrays to global implementation is described. The objective is to create a fully global, top-to-bottom, dynamically complete, and multidisciplinary Argo Program that will integrate seamlessly with satellite and with other in situ elements of the Global Ocean Observing System (Legler et al., 2015). The integrated system will deliver operational reanalysis and forecasting capability, and assessment of the state and variability of the climate system with respect to physical, biogeochemical, and ecosystems parameters. It will enable basic research of unprecedented breadth and magnitude, and a wealth of ocean-education and outreach opportunities.

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Argo data 1999-2019: two million temperature-salinity profiles and subsurface velocity observations from a global array of profiling floats.

2020-09-15 , Wong, Annie P. S. , Wijffels, Susan E. , Riser, Stephen C. , Pouliquen, Sylvie , Hosoda, Shigeki , Roemmich, Dean , Gilson, John , Johnson, Gregory C. , Martini, Kim I. , Murphy, David J. , Scanderbeg, Megan , Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S. , Buck, Justin J. H. , Merceur, Frederic , Carval, Thierry , Maze, Guillaume , Cabanes, Cécile , André, Xavier , Poffa, Noé , Yashayaev, Igor , Barker, Paul M. , Guinehut, Stéphanie , Belbeoch, Mathieu , Ignaszewski, Mark , Baringer, Molly O. , Schmid, Claudia , Lyman, John , McTaggart, Kristene E. , Purkey, Sarah G. , Zilberman, Nathalie , Alkire, Matthew , Swift, Dana , Owens, W. Brechner , Jayne, Steven R. , Hersh, Cora , Robbins, Pelle E. , West-Mack, Deb , Bahr, Frank B. , Yoshida, Sachiko , Sutton, Philip J. H. , Cancouët, Romain , Coatanoan, Christine , Dobbler, Delphine , Garcia Juan, Andrea , Gourrion, Jérôme , Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas , Bernard, Vincent , Bourlès, Bernard , Claustre, Hervé , d’Ortenzio, Fabrizio , Le Reste, Serge , Le Traon, Pierre-Yves , Rannou, Jean-Philippe , Saout-Grit, Carole , Speich, Sabrina , Thierry, Virginie , Verbrugge, Nathalie , Angel-Benavides, Ingrid M. , Klein, Birgit , Notarstefano, Giulio , Poulain, Pierre Marie , Vélez-Belchí, Pedro , Suga, Toshio , Ando, Kentaro , Iwasaska, Naoto , Kobayashi, Taiyo , Masuda, Shuhei , Oka, Eitarou , Sato, Kanako , Nakamura, Tomoaki , Sato, Katsunari , Takatsuki, Yasushi , Yoshida, Takashi , Cowley, Rebecca , Lovell, Jenny L. , Oke, Peter , van Wijk, Esmee , Carse, Fiona , Donnelly, Matthew , Gould, W. John , Gowers, Katie , King, Brian A. , Loch, Stephen G. , Mowat, Mary , Turton, Jon , Pattabhi Rama Rao, Eluri , Ravichandran, M. , Freeland, Howard , Gaboury, Isabelle , Gilbert, Denis , Greenan, Blair J. W. , Ouellet, Mathieu , Ross, Tetjana , Tran, Anh , Dong, Mingmei , Liu, Zenghong , Xu, Jianping , Kang, KiRyong , Jo, HyeongJun , Kim, Sung-Dae , Park, Hyuk-Min

In the past two decades, the Argo Program has collected, processed, and distributed over two million vertical profiles of temperature and salinity from the upper two kilometers of the global ocean. A similar number of subsurface velocity observations near 1,000 dbar have also been collected. This paper recounts the history of the global Argo Program, from its aspiration arising out of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, to the development and implementation of its instrumentation and telecommunication systems, and the various technical problems encountered. We describe the Argo data system and its quality control procedures, and the gradual changes in the vertical resolution and spatial coverage of Argo data from 1999 to 2019. The accuracies of the float data have been assessed by comparison with high-quality shipboard measurements, and are concluded to be 0.002°C for temperature, 2.4 dbar for pressure, and 0.01 PSS-78 for salinity, after delayed-mode adjustments. Finally, the challenges faced by the vision of an expanding Argo Program beyond 2020 are discussed.