Peck Myron A.

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Peck
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Myron A.
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Early life history and fisheries oceanography : new questions in a changing world

2014-12 , Llopiz, Joel K. , Cowen, Robert K. , Hauff, Martha J. , Ji, Rubao , Munday, Philip L. , Muhling, Barbara A. , Peck, Myron A. , Richardson, David E. , Sogard, Susan M. , Sponaugle, Su

In the past 100 years since the birth of fisheries oceanography, research on the early life history of fishes, particularly the larval stage, has been extensive, and much progress has been made in identifying the mechanisms by which factors such as feeding success, predation, or dispersal can influence larval survival. However, in recent years, the study of fish early life history has undergone a major and, arguably, necessary shift, resulting in a growing body of research aimed at understanding the consequences of climate change and other anthropogenically induced stressors. Here, we review these efforts, focusing on the ways in which fish early life stages are directly and indirectly affected by increasing temperature; increasing CO2 concentrations, and ocean acidification; spatial, temporal, and magnitude changes in secondary production and spawning; and the synergistic effects of fishing and climate change. We highlight how these and other factors affect not only larval survivorship, but also the dispersal of planktonic eggs and larvae, and thus the connectivity and replenishment of fish subpopulations. While much of this work is in its infancy and many consequences are speculative or entirely unknown, new modeling approaches are proving to be insightful by predicting how early life stage survival may change in the future and how such changes will impact economically and ecologically important fish populations.

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Responses of summer phytoplankton biomass to changes in top-down forcing : insights from comparative modelling

2018-03 , Maar, Marie , Butenschön, Momme , Daewel, Ute , Eggert, Anja , Fan, Wei , Hjøllo, Solfrid S. , Hufnagl, Marc , Huret, Martin , Ji, Rubao , Lacroix, Geneviève , Peck, Myron A. , Radtke, Hagen , Sailley, Sevrine F. , Sinerchia, Matteo , Skogen, Morten D. , Travers-Trolet, Morgane , Troost, Tineke A. , van de Wolfshaar, Karen

The present study describes the responses of summer phytoplankton biomass to changes in top-down forcing (expressed as zooplankton mortality) in three ecosystems (the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Nordic Seas) across different 3D ecosystem models. In each of the model set-ups, we applied the same changes in the magnitude of mortality (±20%) of the highest trophic zooplankton level (Z1). Model results showed overall dampened responses of phytoplankton relative to Z1 biomass. Phytoplankton responses varied depending on the food web structure and trophic coupling represented in the models. Hence, a priori model assumptions were found to influence cascades and pathways in model estimates and, thus, become highly relevant when examining ecosystem pressures such as fishing and climate change. Especially, the different roles and parameterizations of additional zooplankton groups grazed by Z1, and their importance for the outcome, emphasized the need for better calibration data. Spatial variability was high within each model indicating that physics (hydrodynamics and temperature) and nutrient dynamics also play vital roles for ecosystem responses to top-down effects. In conclusion, the model comparison indicated that changes in top-down forcing in combination with the modelled food-web structure affect summer phytoplankton biomass and, thereby, indirectly influence water quality of the systems.