Patrut Adrian

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Last Name
Patrut
First Name
Adrian
ORCID
0000-0002-9862-6735

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 24
  • Article
    African baobabs with double closed ring-shaped structures and two separate false cavities : radiocarbon investigation of the baobab of Golconda Fort
    (Studia Chemia, 2016) Patrut, Adrian ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Rakosy, Laszlo ; Bodis, Jeno ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; Forizs, Edit ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The article discloses the results of radiocarbon investigation of the baobab of Golconda Fort, Hyderābād, India, which is the largest African baobab outside Africa. Two wood samples were collected from the large inner cavity; of these we extracted several segments for AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. The oldest sample segment had a radiocarbon date of 342 ± 22 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated age of 430 ± 20 yr. We estimate that the oldest part of the baobab has an age of 475 ± 50 yr. The investigation of the baobab of Golconda Fort revealed that it consists of 6 + 2 fused stems. Six stems build two rings that close two distinct false cavities, while two additional stems are located outside the rings. We called this new type of architecture double closed ring-shaped structure with two separate false cavities.
  • Article
    Radiocarbon dating of Makuri Le boom, a very old African baobab from Nyae Nyae, Namibia
    (Department of Chemistry, 2020) Patrut, Roxana T. ; Patrut, Adrian ; Rakosy, Demetra ; Rakosy, Laszlo ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; Bodis, Jeno ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The article reports the AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating results of Makuri Lê boom, a very large African baobab from Nyae Nyae Conservancy, Namibia. The investigation of this superlative baobab shows that it consists of 12 independent stems of different dimensions, which belong to three generations. Makuri Lê boom has an open ring-shaped structure, a type of architecture which allows baobabs to reach very large sizes and old ages. The oldest sample has a radiocarbon date of 1602 ± 17 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated age of 1520 ± 35 calendar yr. By this value, Makuri Lê boom becomes one of the oldest dated baobabs and angiosperms with accurate dating results.
  • Article
    Radiocarbon investigation of the big baobab of Outapi, Namibia
    (Studia Chemia, 2021-03-31) Patrut, Adrian ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Rakosy, Laszlo ; Rakosy, Demetra ; Ratiu, Ileana-Andreea ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The article reports the AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating results of the Big baobab of Outapi, which is the largest African baobab of Outapi, Namibia. The investigation of this monumental baobab revealed that it consists of 8 fused stems, out of which 4 are false stems. The Big baobab exhibits a closed ring-shaped structure. Three stems build the ring, which is now incomplete due to previous damage to the false cavity. Three wood samples were collected from the false cavity and from the longest false stem. Seven segments were extracted from the samples and dated by radiocarbon. The oldest investigated sample segment had a radiocarbon date of 820 ± 17 BP, corresponding to a calibrated age of 780 ± 10 calendar years. According to dating results, the Big baobab of Outapi is 850 ± 50 years old.
  • Article
    Radiocarbon investigation of two old elms from Romania
    (Studia Chemia, 2022-03) Patrut, Adrian ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Bocos-Bintintan, Victor ; Ratiu, Ileana-Andreea ; Rakosy, Laszlo ; Zdrob, George ; Vanca, Eufrosina ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The paper reports the AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon investigation results of two superlative elms from Romana, the very large field elm of Calafat, with a wood volume of 85 m 3 , and the wych elm of Sadova. Two wood samples were extracted from each elm and were analysed by AMS radiocarbon. The oldest dated sample from the elm of Calafat had a radiocarbon date of 350 ± 19 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated age of 415 ± 25 years, while the oldest sample from the elm of Sadova had a radiocarbon date of 188 ± 24 BP, corresponding to a calibrated age of 260 ± 25 years. These values indicate high ages for the two elms, namely 430 ± 25 years or the elm of Calafat and 400 ± 25 years for the elm of Sadova.
  • Article
    Radiocarbon investigation of the Superlative African Baobabs from Savé Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe
    (Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Department of Chemistry, 2019) Patrut, Adrian ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Rakosy, Laszlo ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; Margineanu, Dragos ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The article reports the radiocarbon investigation results of the superlative African baobabs from Savé Valley, Zimbabwe. Several wood samples collected from these baobab were analysed by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. The radiocarbon dates of the oldest samples were 1529 ± 14 BP for Matendere Big baobab, 1179 ± 19 BP for Chishakwe Big tree and 1096 ± 35 BP for Mokore Giant baobab. The corresponding calibrated ages are 1430 ± 15, 1090 ± 40 and 1020 ± 25 calendar yr. The oldest tree from Savé Valley, which we described previously, is the Humani Bedford Old baobab. The radiocarbon date of its oldest sample, 1655 ± 14 BP, corresponds to a calibrated age of 1580 ± 30 calendar yr.
  • Article
    Radiocarbon investigation of the pedunculate oak of Botosana, Romania
    (Studia Chemia, 2018) Patrut, Adrian ; Robu, Nicolae ; Savu, Vasile ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Rakosky, Laszlo ; Ratiu, Ileana-Andreea ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; Margineanu, Dragos ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The article discloses the AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating results of the pedunculate oak of Botoşana. Four wood samples were extracted from its trunk. Five segments extracted from these samples were analyzed by AMS radiocarbon. Their radiocarbon dates were found to be between 161 ± 21 BP and 260 ± 20 BP. These values correspond to calibrated ages of 235 – 365 years. The dating results extrapolated to the geometric center of the trunk indicate an age of 645 ± 50 years for the oak of Botoşana.
  • Article
    Fire history of a giant African baobab evinced by radiocarbon dating
    (Dept. of Geosciences, University of Arizona, 2010-08) Patrut, Adrian ; Mayne, Diana H. ; von Reden, Karl F. ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; Van Pelt, Robert ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Roberts, Mark L. ; Margineanu, Dragos
    The article reports the first radiocarbon dating of a live African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.), by investigating wood samples collected from 2 inner cavities of the very large 2-stemmed Platland tree of South Africa. Some 16 segments extracted from determined positions of the samples, which correspond to a depth of up to 15–20 cm in the wood, were processed and analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated ages of segments are not correlated with their positions in the stems of the tree. Dating results indicate that the segments originate from new growth layers, with a thickness of several centimeters, which cover the original old wood. Four new growth layers were dated before the reference year AD 1950 and 2 layers were dated post-AD 1950, in the post-bomb period. Formation of these layers was triggered by major damage inside the cavities. Fire episodes are the only possible explanation for such successive major wounds over large areas or over the entire area of the inner cavities of the Platland tree, able to trigger regrowth.
  • Article
    African baobabs with a very large number of stems and false stems : radiocarbon Investigation of the baobab of Warang
    (Studia Chemia, 2017-03) Patrut, Adrian ; Garnaud, Sébastien ; Ka, Oumar ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Diagne, Tomas ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; Forizs, Edit ; Bodis, Jeno ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The article presents the AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating results of the baobab of Warang, Senegal. The investigation of the baobab revealed that it consists of 18 partially fused stems, which represents the largest number of stems reported for an African baobab. Three stems build the ring that closes a false cavity, while 15 stems grow outside the ring. Seven wood samples were collected from the false cavity and from the outer part of other stems. The dating results evinced that the stems belong to four different generations, out of which the first generation is around 500 years old. We also documented the presence of false stems, which emerge from a large adjacent stem, are triangular in horizontal section and act as an anchor. The baobab of Warang possesses 12 ordinary stems and 6 false stems.
  • Article
    Radiocarbon investigation of two large african baobabs from Kizimkazi, Zanzibar, Tanzania
    (Studia Chemia, 2022-06) Adrian, Patrut ; Roxana T., Patrut ; Laszlo, Rakosy ; Ileana-Andreea, Ratiu ; Jenö, Bodis ; Nassor Mahmoud, Nassor ; Karl F., Von Reden
    The article reports the AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating results of Kizimkazi Big tree and Kizimkazi II baobab, two large African baobabs from Zanzibar, Tanzania. Unfortunately, both baobabs toppled and died in 2018 and 2020, during violent storms. The investigation of the two baobabs evinced that the first of them, which was also the biggest tree of Tanzania, consisted of 5 stems, out of which 2 were false ones, and had a closed ring-shaped structure. The second baobab was composed of 4 fused stems and had a cluster structure. Several wood samples were collected from the two baobabs. Seven segments were extracted from the samples and dated by radiocarbon. The oldest segment from Kizimkazi Big tree had a radiocarbon date of 312 ± 18 BP, corresponding to a calibrated age of 380 ± 10 calendar years. According to dating results, the Kizimkazi Big tree died at the age of 400 ± 25 years. The oldest segment from Kizimkazi II baobab had a radiocarbon date of 137 ± 17 BP, corresponding to a calibrated age of 190 ± 10 calendar years. This value indicates that the Kizimkazi II baobab was 250 ± 25 years old when it died.
  • Article
    Radiocarbon dating of a very old African baobab from Savé Valley, Zimbabwe
    (Studia Chemia, 2016) Patrut, Adrian ; Rakosy, Laszlo ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Ratiu, Ileana ; Forizs, Edit ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; Margineanu, Dragos ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The article reports the radiocarbon investigation results of the Humani Bedford baobab, an old African baobab from Savé Valley, Zimbabwe. Two wood samples were collected from the large inner cavity. Several segments were extracted from these samples and analysed by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. We found that the age values of segments increase with the distance into the wood. This major anomaly is characteristic to multi-stemmed baobabs with a closed ring-shaped structure and a false cavity inside. The investigation of the Humani Bedford baobab evinced that the baobab consists of three fused stems. The fourth stem of the ring is missing. The oldest dated segment was found to have a radiocarbon date of 1655 ± 14 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated age of 1575 ± 30 yr. The dating results show that the stems which build the ring stopped growing toward the false cavity more than 600 yr ago. By considering the position of the oldest segment in the investigated stem, we concluded that the Humani Bedford baobab is around 1800 yr old. According to our dating results, the Humani Bedford baobab becomes the oldest living African baobab.
  • Article
    Radiocarbon investigation of a superlative Grandidier Baobab, the Big Reniala of Isosa
    (Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Department of Chemistry, 2019) Patrut, Roxana T. ; Patrut, Adrian ; Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel Leong ; Woodborne, Stephan ; Rakosy, Laszlo ; Danthu, Pascal ; Ratiu, Ileana-Andreea ; Bodis, Jeno ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The article discloses the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating results of the Big Reniala of Isosa, which is a massive Grandidier baobab (Adansonia grandidieri Baill.) of Madagascar. The investigation of this baobab shows that it consists of 5 perfectly fused stems and exhibits a cluster structure. The calculated wood volume of the tree is 540 m3, which makes the Big Reniala of Isosa the largest individual of all Adansonia species and also the biggest known angiosperm in terms of volume. Several samples were collected from the outer part of the stems. The oldest dated sample had a radiocarbon date of 934 ± 24 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated age of 845 ± 25 years. This value indicates an age of 1000 ± 100 years for the big Reniala of Isosa.
  • Article
    Final radiocarbon investigation of Platland tree, the biggest African baobab
    (Studia Chemia, 2017) Patrut, Adrian ; Woodborne, Stephan ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Rakosy, Laszlo ; Hall, Grant ; Ratiu, Ileana ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The article discloses the main results of our new investigation of Platland tree, a.k.a. Sunland baobab, the largest known African baobab. Our recent research was motivated by the three successive splits of 2016 and 2017, which determined the collapse and demise of the stems that have built the main unit of the tree. According to our new findings concerning the architecture of large and old baobabs, we established that Platland tree has a double closed-ring shaped structure and consists of two units/rings that close two separate false cavities. The larger unit was composed of five fused stems, out of which four toppled and died, while the fifth stem is already broken. The smaller unit, which is still standing, consists of three fused stems. We also determined that the larger unit had an age of 800 yr, while the smaller unit is 1100 yr old.
  • Article
    Age, growth and death of a national icon: the historic Chapman baobab of Botswana
    (MDPI, 2019-11-05) Patrut, Adrian ; Woodborne, Stephan ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Hall, Grant ; Rakosy, Laszlo ; Winterbach, Christiaan ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The year 2016 witnessed the fall of a symbol of the botanical world: the historic Chapman baobab of Botswana. This article presents the results of our investigation of the standing and fallen tree. The Chapman baobab had an open ring-shaped structure composed of six partially fused stems. Several wood samples collected from the stems prior and after their collapse were analysed by using radiocarbon dating. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 1381 ± 22 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated age of 1345 (+10, −15) calendar years. The dating results show that the six stems of the Chapman baobab belonged to three different generations, which were 1350–1400, 800–1000 and 500–600 years old. The growth rate variation of the largest and oldest stem is presented and correlated with the climate evolution in the area over the past 1000 years. The factors that determined the sudden fall and death of the Chapman baobab are also presented and discussed.
  • Article
    Radiocarbon dating of a very large African baobab from Limpopo, South Africa : investigation of the Sagole Big Tree
    (Studia Chemia, 2017) Patrut, Adrian ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Van Pelt, Robert ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; Forizs, Edit ; Bodis, Jeno ; Margineanu, Dragos ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The article reports the AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating results of Sagole Big tree, a giant African baobab from Limpopo, South Africa. Several wood samples were collected from the walls of its inner cavity and dated by radiocarbon. The age values along the cavity samples increase with the distance into the wood. This anomaly shows that the cavity is a false one. The oldest sample segment had a radiocarbon date of 781 ± 29 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated age of 740 ± 15 yr. We estimate that the oldest part of the Sagole baobab has an age of 800-900 yr. We determined that the tree has a closed ring-shaped structure, which consists of a large unit with six fused stems and of two additional leaning stems.
  • Article
    Radiocarbon dating of the historic Livingstone Tree at Chiramba, Mozambique
    (Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, 2020) Patrut, Adrian ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Slater, Michael J. ; Rakosy, Laszlo ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The article reports the AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating results of the Livingstone Tree, a large African baobab on the right bank of the Zambezi, near Chiramba, Mozambique. In 1858, David Livingstone, who discovered the baobab, carved his monogram on the walls of its inner cavity. In 1996, the historic baobab was uprooted when a cyclone struck the area. Several wood fragments were extracted from the remains of the toppled tree. Five samples which originate from these fragments were subsequently dated by radiocarbon. The oldest sample had a radiocarbon date of 1598 ± 17 BP, that corresponded in 1996 to a calibrated age of 1490 ± 35 calendar years. According to this value, the Livingstone Tree at Chiramba becomes one of the oldest known African baobabs, with an age of over 1500 years. The Livingstone Tree had a closed ring-shaped structure, that consisted of 4 fused stems around a false cavity and also 2 additional stems outside the ring.
  • Article
    Searching for the oldest baobab of Madagascar : radiocarbon investigation of large Adansonia rubrostipa trees
    (Public Library of Science, 2015-03-25) Patrut, Adrian ; von Reden, Karl F. ; Danthu, Pascal ; Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel Leong ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Lowy, Daniel A.
    We extended our research on the architecture, growth and age of trees belonging to the genus Adansonia, by starting to investigate large individuals of the most widespread Malagasy species. Our research also intends to identify the oldest baobabs of Madagascar. Here we present results of the radiocarbon investigation of the two most representative Adansonia rubrostipa (fony baobab) specimens, which are located in south-western Madagascar, in the Tsimanampetsotse National Park. We found that the fony baobab called “Grandmother” consists of 3 perfectly fused stems of different ages. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was found to be 1136 ± 16 BP. We estimated that the oldest part of this tree, which is mainly hollow, has an age close to 1,600 yr. This value is comparable to the age of the oldest Adansonia digitata (African baobab) specimens. By its age, the Grandmother is a major candidate for the oldest baobab of Madagascar. The second investigated specimen, called the “polygamous baobab”, consists of 6 partially fused stems of different ages. According to dating results, this fony baobab is 1,000 yr old. This research is the first investigation of the structure and age of Malagasy baobabs.
  • Article
    Radiocarbon dating of the old ash of Aiton, Romania
    (Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, 2018) Patrut, Adrian ; Patrut, Roxana T. ; Rakosy, Laszlo ; Ratiu, Ileana ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; Bodis, Jeno ; von Reden, Karl F.
    The article reports the AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon investigation results of the old common ash of Aiton. Five wood samples were collected from the trunk of the tree. The deepest ends of the samples were analysed by AMS radiocarbon. We found radiocarbon dates between 165 ± 20 BP and 240 ± 18 BP, which correspond to calibrated ages of 230 – 360 years. These results, combined with a ring counting estimate, indicate an age of 330 ± 30 years for the ash of Aiton. By this value, the ash of Aiton becomes the oldest known common ash with accurate dating results.
  • Article
    Age and growth rate dynamics of an old African baobab determined by radiocarbon dating
    (Dept. of Geosciences, University of Arizona, 2010-08) Patrut, Adrian ; Mayne, Diana H. ; von Reden, Karl F. ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; Venter, Sarah ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Roberts, Mark L. ; Margineanu, Dragos
    In 2008, a large African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) from Makulu Makete, South Africa, split vertically into 2 sections, revealing a large enclosed cavity. Several wood samples collected from the cavity were processed and radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for determining the age and growth rate dynamics of the tree. The 14C date of the oldest sample was found to be of 1016 ± 22 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated age of 1000 ± 15 yr. Thus, the Makulu Makete tree, which eventually collapsed to the ground and died, becomes the second oldest African baobab dated accurately to at least 1000 yr. The conventional growth rate of the trunk, estimated by the radial increase, declined gradually over its life cycle. However, the growth rate expressed more adequately by the cross-sectional area increase and by the volume increase accelerated up to the age of 650 yr and remained almost constant over the past 450 yr.
  • Preprint
    Comparative AMS radiocarbon dating of pretreated versus non-pretreated tropical wood samples
    ( 2009-10) Patrut, Adrian ; von Reden, Karl F. ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; Mayne, Diana H. ; Elder, Kathryn L. ; Roberts, Mark L. ; McNichol, Ann P.
    Several wood samples collected from Dorslandboom, a large African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) from Namibia, were investigated by AMS radiocarbon dating subsequent to pretreatment and, alternatively, without pretreatment. The comparative statistical evaluation of results showed that there were no significant differences between fraction modern values and radiocarbon dates of the samples analyzed after pretreatment and without pretreatment, respectively. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 993 ± 20 BP. Dating results also revealed that Dorslandboom is a multi-generation tree, with several stems showing different ages.
  • Article
    African baobabs with false inner cavities : the radiocarbon investigation of the Lebombo Eco Trail Baobab
    (Public Library of Science, 2015-01-26) Patrut, Adrian ; Woodborne, Stephan ; von Reden, Karl F. ; Hall, Grant ; Hofmeyr, Michele ; Lowy, Daniel A. ; Patrut, Roxana T.
    The article reports the radiocarbon investigation results of the Lebombo Eco Trail tree, a representative African baobab from Mozambique. Several wood samples collected from the large inner cavity and from the outer part of the tree were investigated by AMS radiocarbon dating. According to dating results, the age values of all samples increase from the sampling point with the distance into the wood. For samples collected from the cavity walls, the increase of age values with the distance into the wood (up to a point of maximum age) represents a major anomaly. The only realistic explanation for this anomaly is that such inner cavities are, in fact, natural empty spaces between several fused stems disposed in a ring-shaped structure. We named them false cavities. Several important differences between normal cavities and false cavities are presented. Eventually, we dated other African baobabs with false inner cavities. We found that this new architecture enables baobabs to reach large sizes and old ages. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 1425 ± 24 BP, which corresponds to a calibrated age of 1355 ± 15 yr. The dating results also show that the Lebombo baobab consists of five fused stems, with ages between 900 and 1400 years; these five stems build the complete ring. The ring and the false cavity closed 800–900 years ago. The results also indicate that the stems stopped growing toward the false cavity over the past 500 years.