Platov Gennady A.
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ArticleGreenland freshwater pathways in the sub-Arctic Seas from model experiments with passive tracers(John Wiley & Sons, 2016-01-25) Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S. ; Myers, Paul G. ; Platov, Gennady A. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Curry, Beth ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Bamber, Jonathan L. ; Chassignet, Eric P. ; Hu, Xianmin ; Lee, Craig M. ; Somavilla, RaquelAccelerating since the early 1990s, the Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss exerts a significant impact on thermohaline processes in the sub-Arctic seas. Surplus freshwater discharge from Greenland since the 1990s, comparable in volume to the amount of freshwater present during the Great Salinity Anomaly events, could spread and accumulate in the sub-Arctic seas, influencing convective processes there. However, hydrographic observations in the Labrador Sea and the Nordic Seas, where the Greenland freshening signal might be expected to propagate, do not show a persistent freshening in the upper ocean during last two decades. This raises the question of where the surplus Greenland freshwater has propagated. In order to investigate the fate, pathways, and propagation rate of Greenland meltwater in the sub-Arctic seas, several numerical experiments using a passive tracer to track the spreading of Greenland freshwater have been conducted as a part of the Forum for Arctic Ocean Modeling and Observational Synthesis effort. The models show that Greenland freshwater propagates and accumulates in the sub-Arctic seas, although the models disagree on the amount of tracer propagation into the convective regions. Results highlight the differences in simulated physical mechanisms at play in different models and underscore the continued importance of intercomparison studies. It is estimated that surplus Greenland freshwater flux should have caused a salinity decrease by 0.06–0.08 in the sub-Arctic seas in contradiction with the recently observed salinification (by 0.15–0.2) in the region. It is surmised that the increasing salinity of Atlantic Water has obscured the freshening signal.
ArticleMechanisms of Pacific Summer Water variability in the Arctic's Central Canada Basin(John Wiley & Sons, 2014-11-10) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Golubeva, Elena ; Jackson, Jennifer M. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; McCall, Margaret ; Platov, Gennady A. ; Toole, John M. ; Williams, William J. ; Kikuchi, Takashi ; Nishino, ShigetoPacific Water flows northward through Bering Strait and penetrates the Arctic Ocean halocline throughout the Canadian Basin sector of the Arctic. In summer, Pacific Summer Water (PSW) is modified by surface buoyancy fluxes and mixing as it crosses the shallow Chukchi Sea before entering the deep ocean. Measurements from Ice-Tethered Profilers, moorings, and hydrographic surveys between 2003 and 2013 reveal spatial and temporal variability in the PSW component of the halocline in the Central Canada Basin with increasing trends in integrated heat and freshwater content, a consequence of PSW layer thickening as well as layer freshening and warming. It is shown here how properties in the Chukchi Sea in summer control the temperature-salinity properties of PSW in the interior by subduction at isopycnals that outcrop in the Chukchi Sea. Results of an ocean model, forced by idealized winds, provide support to the mechanism of surface ocean Ekman transport convergence maintaining PSW ventilation of the halocline.
ArticleArctic pathways of Pacific Water : Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments(John Wiley & Sons, 2016-01-08) Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Karcher, Michael ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Gerdes, Rudiger ; de Cuevas, Beverly ; Golubeva, Elena ; Kauker, Frank ; Nguyen, An T. ; Platov, Gennady A. ; Wadley, Martin ; Watanabe, Eiji ; Coward, Andrew C. ; Nurser, A. J. GeorgePacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state-of-the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin.
ArticleAnalysis of the Beaufort Gyre freshwater content in 2003-2018(American Geophysical Union, 2019-12-11) Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Toole, John M. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Williams, William J. ; Zimmermann, Sarah ; Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo ; Armitage, Thomas ; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S. ; Golubeva, Elena ; Manucharyan, Georgy E. ; Platov, Gennady A. ; Watanabe, Eiji ; Kikuchi, Takashi ; Nishino, Shigeto ; Itoh, Motoyo ; Kang, Sung-Ho ; Cho, Kyoung-Ho ; Tateyama, Kazutaka ; Zhao, JingHydrographic data collected from research cruises, bottom‐anchored moorings, drifting Ice‐Tethered Profilers, and satellite altimetry in the Beaufort Gyre region of the Arctic Ocean document an increase of more than 6,400 km3 of liquid freshwater content from 2003 to 2018: a 40% growth relative to the climatology of the 1970s. This fresh water accumulation is shown to result from persistent anticyclonic atmospheric wind forcing (1997–2018) accompanied by sea ice melt, a wind‐forced redirection of Mackenzie River discharge from predominantly eastward to westward flow, and a contribution of low salinity waters of Pacific Ocean origin via Bering Strait. Despite significant uncertainties in the different observations, this study has demonstrated the synergistic value of having multiple diverse datasets to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of Beaufort Gyre freshwater content variability. For example, Beaufort Gyre Observational System (BGOS) surveys clearly show the interannual increase in freshwater content, but without satellite or Ice‐Tethered Profiler measurements, it is not possible to resolve the seasonal cycle of freshwater content, which in fact is larger than the year‐to‐year variability, or the more subtle interannual variations.
ArticleTime scales of the Greenland freshwater anomaly in the subpolar North Atlantic(American Meteorological Society, 2021-10-15) Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S. ; Yashayaev, Igor ; Chassignet, Eric P. ; Myers, Paul G. ; Platov, Gennady A. ; Proshutinsky, AndreyThe impact of increasing Greenland freshwater discharge on the subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA) remains unknown as there are uncertainties associated with the time scales of the Greenland freshwater anomaly (GFWA) in the SPNA. Results from numerical simulations tracking GFWA and an analytical approach are employed to estimate the response time, suggesting that a decadal time scale (13 years) is required for the SPNA to adjust for increasing GFWA. Analytical solutions obtained for a long-lasting increase of freshwater discharge show a non-steady-state response of the SPNA with increasing content of the GFWA. In contrast, solutions for a short-lived pulse of freshwater demonstrate different responses of the SPNA with a rapid increase of freshwater in the domain followed by an exponential decay after the pulse has passed. The derived theoretical relation between time scales shows that residence time scales are time dependent for a non-steady-state case and asymptote the response time scale with time. The residence time of the GFWA deduced from Lagrangian experiments is close to and smaller than the response time, in agreement with the theory. The Lagrangian analysis shows dependence of the residence time on the entrance route of the GFWA and on the depth. The fraction of the GFWA exported through Davis Strait has limited impact on the interior basins, whereas the fraction entering the SPNA from the southwest Greenland shelf spreads into the interior regions. In both cases, the residence time of the GFWA increases with depth demonstrating long persistence of the freshwater anomaly in the subsurface layers.