Now showing items 5118-5137 of 7122

  • A potential bias in coral reconstruction of sea surface temperature 

    Solow, Andrew R.; Huppert, Amit (American Geophysical Union, 2004-03-25)
    Isotopic measurements in corals are used to reconstruct past sea surface temperature. These reconstructions are based on calibration regression analyses using paired measurements of modern isotopic composition and sea ...
  • Potential for sound sensitivity in cephalopods 

    Mooney, T. Aran; Hanlon, Roger T.; Madsen, Peter T.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Ketten, Darlene R.; Nachtigall, Paul E. (2010-07)
    Hearing is a primary sense in many marine animals and we now have a reasonable understanding of what stimuli generate clear responses, the frequency range of sensitivity, expected threshold values and mecha-nisms of sound ...
  • Potential importance of physiologically diverse benthic foraminifera in sedimentary nitrate storage and respiration 

    Bernhard, Joan M.; Casciotti, Karen L.; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Beaudoin, David J.; Visscher, Pieter T.; Edgcomb, Virginia P. (American Geophysical Union, 2012-07-03)
    Until recently, the process of denitrification (conversion of nitrate or nitrite to gaseous products) was thought to be performed exclusively by prokaryotes and fungi. The finding that foraminifera perform complete ...
  • Potential influence of climate-induced vegetation shifts on future land use and associated land carbon fluxes in Northern Eurasia 

    Kicklighter, David W.; Cai, Y.; Zhuang, Qianlai; Parfenova, E. I.; Paltsev, S.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Reilly, John M.; Tchebakova, Nadja M.; Lu, X. (IOP Publishing, 2014-03-21)
    Climate change will alter ecosystem metabolism and may lead to a redistribution of vegetation and changes in fire regimes in Northern Eurasia over the 21st century. Land management decisions will interact with these ...
  • Potential vorticity constraint on the flow between two basins 

    Yang, Jiayan; Price, James F. (American Meteorological Society, 2007-09)
    This paper examines the role of potential vorticity (PV) balance in source- and sink-driven flows between two basins. As shown in previous studies, PV advection into a basin, say a positive PV advection, requires a negative ...
  • Power efficiency of outer hair cell somatic electromotility 

    Rabbitt, Richard D.; Clifford, Sarah; Breneman, Kathryn D.; Farrell, Brenda; Brownell, William E. (Public Library of Science, 2009-07-24)
    Cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) are fast biological motors that serve to enhance the vibration of the organ of Corti and increase the sensitivity of the inner ear to sound. Exactly how OHCs produce useful mechanical power ...
  • Power spectra of infragravity waves in a deep ocean 

    Godin, Oleg A.; Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Yang, Zhaohui; Collins, John A. (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-05-29)
    Infragravity waves (IGWs) play an important role in coupling wave processes in the ocean, ice shelves, atmosphere, and the solid Earth. Due to the paucity of experimental data, little quantitative information is available ...
  • Pre-aged plant waxes in tropical lake sediments and their influence on the chronology of molecular paleoclimate proxy records 

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Pagani, Mark; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Curtis, Jason H.; Ma, Keith; Breckenridge, Andy (2014-07)
    Sedimentary records of plant-wax hydrogen (δDwax) and carbon (δ13Cwax) stable isotopes are increasingly applied to infer past climate change. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses, however, indicate that long time lags ...
  • Precipitation as the main driver of Neoglacial fluctuations of Gualas glacier, Northern Patagonian Icefield 

    Bertrand, Sebastien; Hughen, Konrad A.; Lamy, Frank; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; Torrejon, Fernando; Lange, Carina B. (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2012-03-15)
    Glaciers are frequently used as indicators of climate change. However, the link between past glacier fluctuations and climate variability is still highly debated. Here, we investigate the mid- to late-Holocene fluctuations ...
  • Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data 

    Miller, C. E.; Crisp, D.; DeCola, P. L.; Olsen, S. C.; Randerson, James T.; Michalak, Anna M.; Alkhaled, A.; Rayner, Peter; Jacob, D. J.; Suntharalingam, P.; Jones, D. B. A.; Denning, A. S.; Nicholls, M. E.; Doney, Scott C.; Pawson, S.; Boesch, H.; Connor, B. J.; Fung, Inez Y.; O'Brien, D.; Salawitch, R. J.; Sander, S. P.; Sen, B.; Tans, Pieter P.; Toon, G. C.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Yung, Y. L.; Law, R. M. (American Geophysical Union, 2007-05-26)
    Precision requirements are determined for space-based column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2) data. These requirements result from an assessment of spatial and temporal gradients in XCO2, the relationship between ...
  • Predictability 

    Hacker, Joshua; Hansen, James; Berner, Judith; Chen, YangQuan; Eshel, Gidon; Hakim, Gregory; Lazarus, Steven; Majumdar, Sharanya; Morss, Rebecca; Poje, Andrew; Sheremet, Vitalii A.; Tang, Youmin; Webb, Colleen (2005-12)
    A group of junior faculty members and UCAR junior scientists convened in Boulder, CO on June 16-18, 2003 for discussion on future scientific directions. This report summarizes the goals and products of one of the three ...
  • Predicted scattering of sound by diffuse hydrothermal vent plumes at mid-ocean ridges 

    Duda, Timothy F.; Trivett, D. Andrew (Acoustical Society of America, 1998-01)
    Amplitude and phase fluctuations of monochromatic acoustic signals traveling through diffuse mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vent plumes are modeled using existing theory in an attempt to find suitable frequencies and path ...
  • Predicting coastal cliff erosion using a Bayesian probabilistic model 

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Plant, Nathaniel G. (Elsevier B.V., 2010-10-10)
    Regional coastal cliff retreat is difficult to model due to the episodic nature of failures and the along-shore variability of retreat events. There is a growing demand, however, for predictive models that can be used to ...
  • Predicting ecosystem emergent properties at multiple scales 

    Gilbert, Jack A.; Henry, Chris (2014-09)
    Biological phenomena at the microbial community level encode information about the subpopulation of cells and taxa at a specific time in the succession and biogeochemical evolution of that assemblage. To capture and ...
  • Predicting eddy detachment from thin jets 

    Ralph, Elise A. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1991-08)
    Using a semi-geostrophic, reduced gravity thin jet model, we analytically study the evolution of initial meanders into pinched-off rings. The model used is similar to the path equation developed by Flierl and Robinson ...
  • Predicting microbial nitrate reduction pathways in coastal sediments 

    Algar, Christopher K.; Vallino, Joseph J. (Inter-Research, 2014-01-23)
    We present an ecosystem model that describes the biogeochemistry of a sediment nitrate reducing microbial community. In the model, the microbial community is represented as a distributed metabolic network. Biogeochemical ...
  • Predicting seabed burial of cylinders by wave-induced scour : application to the sandy inner shelf off Florida and Massachusetts 

    Trembanis, Arthur C.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Richardson, Michael D.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Howd, Peter A.; Elmore, Paul A.; Wever, Thomas F. (IEEE, 2007-01)
    A simple parameterized model for wave-induced burial of mine-like cylinders as a function of grain-size, time-varying, wave orbital velocity and mine diameter was implemented and assessed against results from inert ...
  • Predicting temporary threshold shifts in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) : the effects of noise level and duration 

    Mooney, T. Aran; Nachtigall, Paul E. (Acoustical Society of America, 2009-03)
    Noise levels in the ocean are increasing and are expected to affect marine mammals. To examine the auditory effects of noise on odontocetes, a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) was exposed to octave-band noise (4–8 ...
  • Predicting trophic position in sharks of the north-west Atlantic Ocean using stable isotope analysis 

    Estrada, James A.; Rice, Aaron N.; Lutcavage, Molly E.; Skomal, Gregory B. (Cambridge University Press, 2004-01-08)
    Trophic positions (TP) were estimated for the blue shark (Prionace glauca), shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus), and basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) using stable isotope ratios of carbon ...