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dc.contributor.authorRomagosa Verges, Miriam  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorCascão, Irma  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMerchant, Nathan D.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorLammers, Marc O.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorGiacomello, Eva  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorMarques, Tiago A.  Concept link
dc.contributor.authorSilva, Monica  Concept link
dc.identifier.citationFrontiers in Marine Science 4 (2017): 109en_US
dc.description© The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Frontiers in Marine Science 4 (2017): 109, doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00109.en_US
dc.description.abstractAssessment of underwater noise is of particular interest given the increase in noise-generating human activities and the potential negative effects on marine mammals which depend on sound for many vital processes. The Azores archipelago is an important migratory and feeding habitat for blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (Balaenoptera physalus) and sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) en route to summering grounds in northern Atlantic waters. High levels of low frequency noise in this area could displace whales or interfere with foraging behavior, impacting energy intake during a critical stage of their annual cycle. In this study, bottom-mounted Ecological Acoustic Recorders were deployed at three Azorean seamounts (Condor, Açores, and Gigante) to measure temporal variations in background noise levels and ship noise in the 18–1,000 Hz frequency band, used by baleen whales to emit and receive sounds. Monthly average noise levels ranged from 90.3 dB re 1 μPa (Açores seamount) to 103.1 dB re 1 μPa (Condor seamount) and local ship noise was present up to 13% of the recording time in Condor. At this location, average contribution of local boat noise to background noise levels is almost 10 dB higher than wind contribution, which might temporally affect detection ranges for baleen whale calls and difficult communication at long ranges. Given the low time percentatge with noise levels above 120 dB re 1 μPa found here (3.3% at Condor), we woud expect limited behavioral responses to ships from baleen whales. Sound pressure levels measured in the Azores are lower than those reported for the Mediterranean basin and the Strait of Gibraltar. However, the currently unknown effects of baleen whale vocalization masking and the increasing presence of boats at the monitored sites underline the need for continuous monitoring to understand any long-term impacts on whales.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipFundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) and Fundo Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia (FRCT), through research projects TRACE (PTDC/MAR/74071/2006), MAPCET (M2.1.2/F/012/2011), and FCT Exploratory project (IF/00943/2013/CP1199/CT0001), supported by funds from FEDER, the Competitiveness Factors Operational (COMPETE), QREN, POPH, European Social Fund, Portuguese Ministry for Science and Education, and Proconvergencia Açores/EU Program. We also acknowledge funds provided by FCT to MARE, through the strategic project UID/MAR/04292/2013, that also supported fees for this open access publication. MR is supported by a DRCT doctoral grant (M3.1.a/F/028/2015), IC was supported by a FCT doctoral grant (SFRH/BD/41192/2007) and MAS is supported by an FCT-Investigator contract (IF/00943/2013).en_US
dc.publisherFrontiers Mediaen_US
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.subjectUnderwater noiseen_US
dc.subjectShip noiseen_US
dc.subjectBaleen whalesen_US
dc.subjectOpen ocean environmenten_US
dc.titleUnderwater ambient noise in a baleen whale migratory habitat off the Azoresen_US

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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 4.0 International