Satellite-derived ocean thermal structure for the North Atlantic hurricane season
Price, James F.
Jayne, Steven R.
MetadataShow full item record
KeywordAtm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomena; Atmosphere-ocean interaction; Oceanic mixed layer; Tropical cyclones; Observational techniques and algorithms; Satellite observations
This paper describes a new model (method) called Satellite-derived North Atlantic Profiles (SNAP) that seeks to provide a high-resolution, near-real-time ocean thermal field to aid tropical cyclone (TC) forecasting. Using about 139 000 observed temperature profiles, a spatially dependent regression model is developed for the North Atlantic Ocean during hurricane season. A new step introduced in this work is that the daily mixed layer depth is derived from the output of a one-dimensional Price–Weller–Pinkel ocean mixed layer model with time-dependent surface forcing. The accuracy of SNAP is assessed by comparison to 19 076 independent Argo profiles from the hurricane seasons of 2011 and 2013. The rms differences of the SNAP-estimated isotherm depths are found to be 10–25 m for upper thermocline isotherms (29°–19°C), 35–55 m for middle isotherms (18°–7°C), and 60–100 m for lower isotherms (6°–4°C). The primary error sources include uncertainty of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), high-frequency fluctuations of isotherm depths, salinity effects, and the barotropic component of SSHA. These account for roughly 29%, 25%, 19%, and 10% of the estimation error, respectively. The rms differences of TC-related ocean parameters, upper-ocean heat content, and averaged temperature of the upper 100 m, are ~10 kJ cm−2 and ~0.8°C, respectively, over the North Atlantic basin. These errors are typical also of the open ocean underlying the majority of TC tracks. Errors are somewhat larger over regions of greatest mesoscale variability (i.e., the Gulf Stream and the Loop Current within the Gulf of Mexico).
Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Monthly Weather Review 144 (2016): 877-896, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-15-0275.1.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Evaluating Southern Ocean biological production in two ocean biogeochemical models on daily to seasonal timescales using satellite chlorophyll and O2 / Ar observations Jonsson, Bror F.; Doney, Scott C.; Dunne, John P.; Bender, Michael L. (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2015-02-04)We assess the ability of ocean biogeochemical models to represent seasonal structures in biomass and net community production (NCP) in the Southern Ocean. Two models are compared to observations on daily to seasonal ...
Shipboard and satellite observations of upper ocean velocity and transport variability in the Gulf Stream Schubert, David M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1990-09)Acoustic doppler velocities are combined with velocity profiles generated from XBT measurements to produce estimates of the flow field between Bermuda and the eastern coast of the United States. Repeated shipboard ...
A modern coastal ocean observing system using data from advanced satellite and in situ sensors – an example Yoder, James A.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Dierssen, Heidi M.; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Mahadevan, Amala; Pearlman, Jay; Sosik, Heidi M. (NSF/Ocean Research Coordination Network, 2015-06-01)This report is intended to illustrate and provide recommendations for how ocean observing systems of the next decade could focus on coastal environments using combined satellite and in situ measurements. Until recently, ...