Variability and trends in surface meteorology and air–sea fluxes at a site off northern Chile
Weller, Robert A.
MetadataShow full item record
Time series of surface meteorology and air–sea exchanges of heat, freshwater, and momentum collected from a long-term surface mooring located 1600 km west of the coast of northern Chile are analyzed. The observations, spanning 2000–10, have been withheld from assimilation into numerical weather prediction models. As such, they provide a unique in situ record of atmosphere–ocean coupling in a trade wind region characterized by persistent stratocumulus clouds. The annual cycle is described, as is the interannual variability. Annual variability in the air–sea heat flux is dominated by the annual cycle in net shortwave radiation. In austral summer, the ocean is heated; the 9-yr mean annual heating of the ocean is 38 W m−2. Ocean cooling is seen in 2006–08, coincident with La Niña events. Over the full record, significant trends were found. Increases in wind speed, wind stress, and latent heat flux over 9 yr were 0.8 m s−1, 0.022 N m−2, and 20 W m−2 or 13%, 29%, and 20% of the respective 9-yr means. The decrease in the annual mean net heat flux was 39 W m−2 or 104% of the mean. These changes were found to be largely associated with spring and fall. If this change persists, the annual mean net air–sea heat flux will change sign by 2016, when the magnitude of the wind stress will have increased by close to 60%.
Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 28 (2015): 3004–3023, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00591.1.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Bates, Susan C.; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Jayne, Steven R.; Large, William G.; Stevenson, Samantha; Yeager, Stephen G. (American Meteorological Society, 2012-11-15)Air–sea fluxes from the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) are compared with the Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiment (CORE) dataset to assess present-day mean biases, variability errors, and late ...
Trend and interannual variability in southeast Greenland Sea Ice : impacts on coastal Greenland climate variability Moore, G. W. K.; Straneo, Fiamma; Oltmanns, Marilena (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-12-02)We describe the recent occurrence of a region of diminished sea ice cover or “notch” offshore of the Kangerdlugssuaq Fiord, the site of the largest tidewater glacier along Greenland's southeast coast. The notch's location ...
Wanninkhof, Rik; Park, Geun-Ha; Takahashi, Taro; Sweeney, Colm; Feely, Richard A.; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Gruber, Nicolas; Doney, Scott C.; McKinley, Galen A.; Lenton, A.; Le Quere, Corinne; Heinze, Christoph; Schwinger, Jorg; Graven, Heather; Khatiwala, Samar (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2013-03-22)The globally integrated sea–air anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from 1990 to 2009 is determined from models and data-based approaches as part of the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project. ...