Geyer, W. Rockwell
Ralston, David K.
MetadataShow full item record
Model studies and observations in the Hudson River estuary indicate that frontogenesis occurs as a result of topographic forcing. Bottom fronts form just downstream of lateral constrictions, where the width of the estuary increases in the down-estuary (i.e., seaward) direction. The front forms during the last several hours of the ebb, when the combination of adverse pressure gradient in the expansion and baroclinicity cause a stagnation of near-bottom velocity. Frontogenesis is observed in two dynamical regimes: one in which the front develops at a transition from subcritical to supercritical flow and the other in which the flow is everywhere supercritical. The supercritical front formation appears to be associated with lateral flow separation. Both types of fronts are three-dimensional, with strong lateral gradients along the flanks of the channel. During spring tide conditions, the fronts dissipate during the flood, whereas during neap tides the fronts are advected landward during the flood. The zone of enhanced density gradient initiates frontogenesis at multiple constrictions along the estuary as it propagates landward more than 60 km during several days of neap tides. Frontogenesis and frontal propagation may thus be essential elements of the spring-to-neap transition to stratified conditions in partially mixed estuaries.
Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 45 (2015): 546–561, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-14-0082.1.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Thomas, Leif N.; Joyce, Terrence M. (American Meteorological Society, 2010-02)Sections of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and velocity were made crossing the Gulf Stream in late January 2006 to investigate the role of frontal processes in the formation of Eighteen Degree Water (EDW), the ...
The influence of the mid-Atlantic ridge upon the circulation and the properties of the Mediterranean water southwest of the Azores Joyce, Terrence M. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1981-06)The warm, salty water influenced by the Mediterranean outfow can be observed at mid-depth throughout the Central North Atlantic Ocean. Katz (1970) first noted that rather than a gradual salinity decrease away from the ...
Thomas, Leif N.; Ferrari, Raffaele (American Meteorological Society, 2008-11)The generation and destruction of stratification in the surface mixed layer of the ocean is understood to result from vertical turbulent transport of buoyancy and momentum driven by air–sea fluxes and stresses. In this ...