Eruptions at Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA: 1. Energetics and eruption dynamics
Sohn, Robert A.
Rudolph, Maxwell L.
Johnston, Malcolm J. S.
McCleskey, R. Blaine
MetadataShow full item record
Geysers provide a natural laboratory to study multiphase eruptive processes. We present results from a 4 day experiment at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, USA. We simultaneously measured water discharge, acoustic emissions, infrared intensity, and visible and infrared video to quantify the energetics and dynamics of eruptions, occurring approximately every 3 h. We define four phases in the eruption cycle (1) a 28±3 min phase with liquid and steam fountaining, with maximum jet velocities of 16–28 m s−1, steam mass fraction of less than ∼0.01. Intermittently choked flow and flow oscillations with periods increasing from 20 to 40 s are coincident with a decrease in jet velocity and an increase of steam fraction; (2) a 26±8 min posteruption relaxation phase with no discharge from the vent, infrared (IR), and acoustic power oscillations gliding between 30 and 40 s; (3) a 59±13 min recharge period during which the geyser is quiescent and progressively refills, and (4) a 69±14 min preplay period characterized by a series of 5–10 min long pulses of steam, small volumes of liquid water discharge, and 50–70 s flow oscillations. The erupted waters ascend from a 160–170°C reservoir, and the volume discharged during the entire eruptive cycle is 20.8±4.1 m3. Assuming isentropic expansion, we calculate a heat output from the geyser of 1.4–1.5 MW, which is <0.1% of the total heat output from Yellowstone Caldera.
Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 118 (2013): 4048–4062, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50251.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Triggering and modulation of geyser eruptions in Yellowstone National Park by earthquakes, earth tides, and weather Hurwitz, Shaul; Sohn, Robert A.; Luttrell, Karen; Manga, Michael (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-03-05)We analyze intervals between eruptions (IBEs) data acquired between 2001 and 2011 at Daisy and Old Faithful geysers in Yellowstone National Park. We focus our statistical analysis on the response of these geysers to stress ...
Eruptions at Lone Star geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA: 2. Constraints on subsurface dynamics Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Sohn, Robert A.; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Manga, Michael; Johnston, Malcolm J. S.; Soule, Samuel A.; McPhee, Darcy; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Karlstrom, Leif; Murphy, Fred (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-12-05)We use seismic, tilt, lidar, thermal, and gravity data from 32 consecutive eruption cycles of Lone Star geyser in Yellowstone National Park to identify key subsurface processes throughout the geyser's eruption cycle. ...
Syn-eruptive degassing of a single submarine lava flow : constraints on MORB CO2 variability, vesiculation, and eruption dynamics Nakata, Dorene S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2010-06)Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) exhibit a wide range of CO2 concentrations, reflecting saturation to supersaturation (and rarely undersaturation) relative to their emplacement depths. In this study, we explore the ...