Eruptions at Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA: 1. Energetics and eruption dynamics
Sohn, Robert A.
Rudolph, Maxwell L.
Johnston, Malcolm J. S.
McCleskey, R. Blaine
MetadataShow full item record
Geysers provide a natural laboratory to study multiphase eruptive processes. We present results from a 4 day experiment at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, USA. We simultaneously measured water discharge, acoustic emissions, infrared intensity, and visible and infrared video to quantify the energetics and dynamics of eruptions, occurring approximately every 3 h. We define four phases in the eruption cycle (1) a 28±3 min phase with liquid and steam fountaining, with maximum jet velocities of 16–28 m s−1, steam mass fraction of less than ∼0.01. Intermittently choked flow and flow oscillations with periods increasing from 20 to 40 s are coincident with a decrease in jet velocity and an increase of steam fraction; (2) a 26±8 min posteruption relaxation phase with no discharge from the vent, infrared (IR), and acoustic power oscillations gliding between 30 and 40 s; (3) a 59±13 min recharge period during which the geyser is quiescent and progressively refills, and (4) a 69±14 min preplay period characterized by a series of 5–10 min long pulses of steam, small volumes of liquid water discharge, and 50–70 s flow oscillations. The erupted waters ascend from a 160–170°C reservoir, and the volume discharged during the entire eruptive cycle is 20.8±4.1 m3. Assuming isentropic expansion, we calculate a heat output from the geyser of 1.4–1.5 MW, which is <0.1% of the total heat output from Yellowstone Caldera.
Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 118 (2013): 4048–4062, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50251.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Syn-eruptive degassing of a single submarine lava flow : constraints on MORB CO2 variability, vesiculation, and eruption dynamics Nakata, Dorene S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2010-06)Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) exhibit a wide range of CO2 concentrations, reflecting saturation to supersaturation (and rarely undersaturation) relative to their emplacement depths. In this study, we explore the ...
Timescales of magmatic processes and eruption ages of the Nyiragongo volcanics from 238U-230Th-226Ra-210Pb disequilibria Chakrabarti, Ramananda; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Basu, Asish R.; Reagan, Mark K.; Durieux, Jacques (2009-09-04)The silica-undersaturated Nyiragongo volcanics, located in the East African rift, have globally unique chemical compositions and unusually low viscosities, only higher than carbonatite lavas, for terrestrial silicate ...
Rapid ascent and emplacement of basaltic lava during the 2005–06 eruption of the East Pacific Rise at ca. 9°51′N as inferred from CO2 contents Gardner, James E.; Jackson, B. A.; Gonnermann, Helge; Soule, Samuel A. (2016-08)Eruption rates at the mid–ocean ridges (MORs) are believed to strongly control the morphology and length of lava flows emplaced along the ridge axis, and thus the structure and porosity of the upper oceanic crust. Eruption ...