Deep sequencing of subseafloor eukaryotic rRNA reveals active fungi across marine subsurface provinces
Figure S1. Pie chart showing the representation of the five most abundant eukaryotic taxonomic groups detected. (381.1Kb)
Figure S2. Rarefaction analysis of the 454-pyrosequencing data clustered at 97% sequence identity. (3.974Mb)
Figure S3. Abundance of fungal T-RFs within the different samples (A) and the overlap in fungal T-RF's between subsurface and shallow sediments (B). (7.828Mb)
Figure S4. Multivariate ordination and heatmap distributions of fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data. (1.345Mb)
Table S1. The number of reads per sample and the number remaining after quality control and removal of contaminant sequences. (39.91Kb)
Table S2. Eukaryotic genera affiliated with rRNA sequences deriving from aerosol contaminants. (33.10Kb)
Table S3. Parametric and non-parametric estimates of fungal richness in subsurface sediments. (49.36Kb)
Orsi, William D.
Biddle, Jennifer F.
Edgcomb, Virginia P.
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The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Because DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA by amplicon pyrosequencing, unique profiles of Fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces including ridge flanks, continental margins, and abyssal plains. Subseafloor fungal populations exhibit statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). These correlations are supported by terminal restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses of fungal rRNA. Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface. Within the same dataset, ancient rRNA signatures were recovered from plants and diatoms in marine sediments ranging from 0.03 to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA from some eukaryotic taxa may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface.
© The Author(s), 2013. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in PLoS ONE 8 (2013): e56335, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056335.
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