Transform texture classification
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This thesis addresses the three major components of a texture classification system: texture image transform, feature extraction/selection, and classification. A unique theoretical investigation of texture analysis, drawing on an extensive survey of existing approaches, defines the interrelations among 11 types of texture analysis methods. A novel unification of the different methods defines a framework of transformation and representation in which three major classes of transform matrices capture texture information of increasing coherence length or correlation distance: the spatial domain method (co-occurrence method), the micro-structural method (run-length method), and the frequency multi-channel method (Fourier spectrum method). A more concise vector representation of a selected transform matrix is then needed for input to a classifier. Unlike traditional methods, which use various special functions to describe the properties of each transform matrix, a new approach directly applies a principle component analysis technique to the transform matrix. The Karhunen-Loeve Transfonn (KLT) extracts a vector of dominant features, optimally preserving texture information in the matrix. This approach is made possible by the introduction of a novel Multi-level Dominant Eigenvector Estimation (MDEE) algorithm, which reduces the computational complexity of the standard KLT by several orders of magnitude. The statistical Bhattacharyya distance measure is then used to rank dominant features according to their discrimination power. Experimental results of applying the new algorithm to the three transform matrix classes show a strong increase in performance by texture analysis methods traditionally considered to be least efficient For example, the power spectrum and run-length methods now rank among the best. Using the same MDEE algorithm, the three extracted feature vectors are then combined into a more complete description of texture images. The same approach is also used for a study of object recognition, where the combined vector also include granulometric; object-boundary, and moment-invariant features. In most classification experiments, a simple statistical Gaussian classifier is used. The plankton object recognition experiments use a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) neural-net classifier to achieve superior performance on the highly non-uniform plankton database. By introducing a new parallel LVQ learning scheme, the speed of network training is dramatically increased. Tests show a 95% classification accuracy on six plankton taxa taken from nearly 2,000 images. This result is comparable with what a trained biologist can accomplish by traditional manual techniques, making possible for the first time a fully automated, at-sea approach to real-time mapping of plankton populations.
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution May 1996
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