FOZO, HIMU, and the rest of the mantle zoo
Hofmann, Albrecht W.
Hart, Stanley R.
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The parameter μ describes the 238U/204Pb ratio of an Earth reservoir. Mantle domains labeled HIMU (high μ) originally defined reservoirs with highly radiogenic Pb isotope ratios observed in basalts from a select number of ocean islands, St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean and the Cook-Austral islands in the South Pacific Ocean. While some authors use the term HIMU in this original sense, others refer to HIMU as a widespread component in many mid-ocean ridge and ocean island basalt (MORB and OIB) sources. Here we show that highly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures in MORB and OIB originate from two different sources. In addition to the classical HIMU component observed at St. Helena and the South Pacific (named HIMU in the following), we define a component with slightly less radiogenic Pb but significantly more radiogenic Sr isotope signatures. This component lies at the extension of the (Atlantic and Pacific) MORB array in a Sr-Pb isotope ratio diagram and is argued to be a ubiquitous component in MORB and many OIB sources. The inferred role of this component in the mantle and its inferred genetic origin closely resemble those originally suggested for a mantle component termed FOZO by Hart and coworkers. By redefining the composition, the origin, and the role of FOZO in the mantle, we establish a simple conceptual framework that explains the isotopic variability in both MORB and OIB with the lowest number of components. OIB are grouped into HIMU-type OIB and basalts from islands that diverge from the MORB-FOZO array toward various isotopically “enriched” compositions (EM). The apparent ubiquity of FOZO in the mantle and the calculated isotopic evolution of compositionally diverse MORB suggest that normal mantle melting and continuous subduction and aging of that crust during recycling through the mantle are the dominant causes of the MORB-FOZO array. In contrast to FOZO, HIMU-type OIB are quite rare, and if an origin by recycling of oceanic crust is also postulated, the production of HIMU sources has to be a special and rare combination of age and composition of subduction-modified recycled oceanic crust.
Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 6 (2005): Q05007, doi:10.1029/2004GC000824.