Tales of the venerable Honolulu tide gauge
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Surface expressions of internal tides constitute a significant component of the total recorded tide. The internal component is strongly modulated by the time-variable density structure, and the resulting perturbation of the recorded tide gives a welcome look at twentieth-century interannual and secular variability. Time series of mean sea level hSL(t) and total recorded M2 vector aTT(t) are extracted from the Honolulu 1905–2000 and Hilo 1947–2000 (Hawaii) tide records. Internal tide parameters are derived from the intertidal continuum surrounding the M2 frequency line and from a Cartesian display of aTT(t), yielding aST = 16.6 and 22.1 cm, aIT = 1.8 and 1.0 cm for surface and internal tides at Honolulu and Hilo, respectively. The proposed model aTT(t) = aST + aIT cosθIT(t) is of a phase-modulated internal tide generated by the surface tide at some remote point and traveling to the tide gauge with velocity modulated by the underlying variable density structure. Mean sea level hSL(t) [a surrogate for the density structure and hence for θIT(t)] is coherent with aIT(t) within the decadal band 0.2–0.5 cycles per year. For both the decadal band and the century drift the recorded M2 amplitude is high when sea level is high, according to δaTT = O(0.1δhSL). The authors attribute the recorded secular increase in the Honolulu M2 amplitude from aTT = 16.1 to 16.9 cm between 1915 and 2000 to a 28° rotation of the internal tide vector in response to ocean warming.
Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 36 (2006): 967-996, doi:10.1175/JPO2876.1.