The seasonal variability of the Arctic Ocean Ekman transport and its role in the mixed layer heat and salt fluxes
MetadataShow full item record
The oceanic Ekman transport and pumping are among the most important parameters in studying the ocean general circulation and its variability. Upwelling due to the Ekman transport divergence has been identified as a leading mechanism for the seasonal to interannual variability of the upper-ocean heat content in many parts of the World Ocean, especially along coasts and the equator. Meanwhile, the Ekman pumping is the primary mechanism that drives basin-scale circulations in subtropical and subpolar oceans. In those ice-free oceans, the Ekman transport and pumping rate are calculated using the surface wind stress. In the ice-covered Arctic Ocean, the surface momentum flux comes from both air–water and ice–water stresses. The data required to compute these stresses are now available from satellite and buoy observations. But no basin-scale calculation of the Ekman transport in the Arctic Ocean has been done to date. In this study, a suite of satellite and buoy observations of ice motion, ice concentration, surface wind, etc., will be used to calculate the daily Ekman transport over the whole Arctic Ocean from 1978 to 2003 on a 25-km resolution. The seasonal variability and its relationship to the surface forcing fields will be examined. Meanwhile, the contribution of the Ekman transport to the seasonal fluxes of heat and salt to the Arctic Ocean mixed layer will be discussed. It was found that the greatest seasonal variations of Ekman transports of heat and salt occur in the southern Beaufort Sea in the fall and early winter when a strong anticyclonic wind and ice motion are present. The Ekman pumping velocity in the interior Beaufort Sea reaches as high as 10 cm day−1 in November while coastal upwelling is even stronger. The contributions of the Ekman transport to the heat and salt flux in the mixed layer are also considerable in the region.
Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 19 (2006): 5366–5387, doi:10.1175/JCLI3892.1.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Yang, Jiayan; Comiso, Josefino C. (American Geophysical Union, 2007-05-17)The salinity in the upper Beaufort Sea from the mixed layer to the thermocline layer was observed by drifting buoys from 1996 to 1998. The salinity in this depth range was lower in winter and higher in the summer, the exact ...
Air-sea CO2 fluxes and the controls on ocean surface pCO2 seasonal variability in the coastal and open-ocean southwestern Atlantic Ocean : a modeling study Arruda, R.; Calil, P. H. R.; Bianchi, A. A.; Doney, Scott C.; Gruber, Nicolas; Lima, Ivan D.; Turi, G. (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2015-10-12)We use an eddy-resolving, regional ocean biogeochemical model to investigate the main variables and processes responsible for the climatological spatio-temporal variability of pCO2 and the air-sea CO2 fluxes in the ...
Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO2 Nevison, Cynthia D.; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Doney, Scott C.; Lima, Ivan D.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Randerson, James T.; Baker, David F.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; McKinley, Galen A. (American Geophysical Union, 2008-02-12)Seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations was simulated using fluxes from fossil fuel, ocean and terrestrial biogeochemical models, and a tracer transport model with time-varying ...