Revisiting experimental methods for studies of acidity-dependent ocean sound absorption
Duda, Timothy F.
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The practical usefulness of long-range acoustic measurements of ocean acidity-linked sound absorption is analyzed. There are two applications: Determining spatially-averaged pH via absorption measurement and verifying absorption effects in an area of known pH. The method is a differential-attenuation technique, with the difference taken across frequency. Measurement performance versus mean frequency and range is examined. It is found that frequencies below 500 Hz are optimal. These are lower than the frequency where the measurement would be most sensitive in the absence of noise and signal fluctuation (scintillation). However, attenuation serves to reduce signal-to-noise ratio with increasing distance and frequency, improving performance potential at lower frequencies. Use of low frequency allows longer paths to be used, with potentially better spatial averaging. Averaging intervals required for detection of fluctuations or trends with the required precision are computed.
Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 125 (2009): 1971-1981, doi:10.1121/1.3089591.