Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication : examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States
Anderson, Donald M.
Burkholder, JoAnn M.
Cochlan, William P.
Glibert, Patricia M.
Gobler, Christopher J.
Heil, Cynthia A.
Kudela, Raphael M.
Parsons, Michael L.
Rensel, J. E. Jack
Townsend, David W.
Trainer, Vera L.
Vargo, Gabriel A.
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Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research.
Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2008. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Harmful Algae 8 (2008): 39-53, doi:10.1016/j.hal.2008.08.017.
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