Episymbiotic microbes as food and defence for marine isopods : unique symbioses in a hostile environment
MetadataShow full item record
KeywordCoral reefs; Chemical defence; Cyanobacteria; Defensive symbiosis; Marine isopods; Molecular phylogenetics
Symbioses profoundly affect the diversity of life, often through novel biochemical services that symbionts provide to their hosts. These biochemical services are typically nutritional enhancements and less commonly defensive, but rarely both simultaneously. On the coral reefs of Papua New Guinea, we discovered unique associations between marine isopod crustaceans (Santia spp.) and episymbiotic microbes. Transmission electron microscopy and pigment analyses show that episymbiont biomass is dominated by large (20–30μm) cyanobacterial cells. The isopods consume these photosymbionts and ‘cultivate’ them by inhabiting exposed sunlit substrates, a behaviour made possible by symbionts' production of a chemical defence that is repulsive to fishes. Molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the symbiotic microbial communities are diverse and probably dominated in terms of population size by bacteria and small unicellular Synechococcus-type cyanobacteria. Although largely unknown in the oceans, defensive symbioses probably promote marine biodiversity by allowing niche expansions into otherwise hostile environments.
Author Posting. © Royal Society, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of Royal Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 272 (2005): 1209-1216, doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3082.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Laufkötter, Charlotte; Vogt, Meike; Gruber, Nicolas; Aita-Noguchi, M.; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Doney, Scott C.; Dunne, John P.; Hashioka, Taketo; Hauck, Judith; Hirata, Takafumi; John, Jasmin G.; Le Quere, Corinne; Lima, Ivan D.; Nakano, Hideyuki; Seferian, Roland; Totterdell, Ian J.; Vichi, Marcello; Volker, Chrisoph (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2015-12-07)Past model studies have projected a global decrease in marine net primary production (NPP) over the 21st century, but these studies focused on the multi-model mean rather than on the large inter-model differences. Here, ...
Hughen, Konrad A.; Baillie, Mike G. L.; Bard, Edouard; Beck, J. Warren; Bertrand, Chanda J. H.; Blackwell, Paul G.; Buck, Caitlin E.; Burr, George S.; Cutler, Kirsten B.; Damon, Paul E.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Fairbanks, Richard G.; Friedrich, Michael; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Kromer, Bernd; McCormac, Gerry; Manning, Sturt; Ramsey, C. Bronk; Reimer, Paula J.; Reimer, Ron W.; Remmele, Sabine; Southon, John R.; Stuiver, Minze; Talamo, Sahra; Taylor, F. W.; van der Plicht, Johannes; Weyhenmeyer, Constanze E. (Dept. of Geosciences, University of Arizona, 2004)New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration data sets extend an additional ...
Developing a national marine electronics agenda : proceedings of the Marine Instrumentation Panel meeting, September 12-14, 1989 Gaines, Arthur G.; Lindborg, Kristina L. C. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1990-12)Thirteen short papers address aspects of competitiveness in the marine electronics instrumentation industry. Topics include activity and status of government initiatives in Japan and Europe to promote this industry; and ...