Multichannel detection for wideband underwater acoustic CDMA communications
Freitag, Lee E.
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KeywordAdaptive algorithms; Decision-feedback equalization; Direct-sequence (DS) spread-spectrum; Multichannel combining; Space-time processing; Underwater acoustic communications; Wideband code-division multiple access (CDMA)
Direct-sequence (DS) code-division multiple access (CDMA) is considered for future wideband mobile underwater acoustic networks, where a typical configuration may include several autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) operating within a few kilometers of a central receiver. Two receivers that utilize multichannel (array) processing of asynchronous multiuser signals are proposed: the symbol decision feedback (SDF) receiver and the chip hypothesis feedback (CHF) receiver. Both receivers use a chip-resolution adaptive front end consisting of a many-to-few combiner and a bank of fractionally-spaced feedforward equalizers. In the SDF receiver, feedback equalization is implemented at symbol resolution, and receiver filters, including a decision-directed phase-locked loop, are adapted at the symbol rate. This limits its applicability to the channels whose time variation is slow compared to the symbol rate. In a wideband acoustic system, which transmits at maximal chip rate, the symbol rate is down-scaled by the spreading factor, and an inverse effect may occur by which increasing the spreading factor results in performance degradation. To eliminate this effect, feedback equalization, which is necessary for the majority of acoustic channels, is performed in the CHF receiver at chip resolution and receiver parameters are adjusted at the chip rate. At the price of increased computational complexity (there are as many adaptive filters as there are symbol values), this receiver provides improved performance for systems where time variation cannot be neglected with respect to the symbol rate [e.g., low probability of detection (LPD) acoustic systems]. Performance of the two receivers was demonstrated in a four-user scenario, using experimental data obtained over a 2-km shallow-water channel. At the chip rate of 19.2 kilochips per second (kc/s) with quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation, excellent results were achieved at an aggregate data rate of up to 10 kb/s
Author Posting. © IEEE, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of IEEE for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 31 (2006): 685-695, doi:10.1109/joe.2006.880389.
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