A new family of giardial cysteine-rich non-VSP protein genes and a novel cyst protein
Davids, Barbara J.
Reiner, David S.
Birkeland, Shanda R.
Preheim, Sarah P.
Cipriano, Michael J.
McArthur, Andrew G.
Gillin, Frances D.
MetadataShow full item record
Since the Giardia lamblia cyst wall is necessary for survival in the environment and host infection, we tested the hypothesis that it contains proteins other than the three known cyst wall proteins. Serial analysis of gene expression during growth and encystation revealed a gene, “HCNCp” (High Cysteine Non-variant Cyst protein), that was upregulated late in encystation, and that resembled the classic Giardia variable surface proteins (VSPs) that cover the trophozoite plasmalemma. HCNCp is 13.9% cysteine, with many “CxxC” tetrapeptide motifs and a transmembrane sequence near the C-terminus. However, HCNCp has multiple “CxC” motifs rarely found in VSPs, and does not localize to the trophozoite plasmalemma. Moreover, the HCNCp C-terminus differed from the canonical VSP signature. Full-length epitope-tagged HCNCp expressed under its own promoter was upregulated during encystation with highest expression in cysts, including 42 and 21 kDa C-terminal fragments. Tagged HCNCp targeted to the nuclear envelope in trophozoites, and co-localized with cyst proteins to encystation-specific secretory vesicles during encystation. HCNCp defined a novel trafficking pathway as it localized to the wall and body of cysts, while the cyst proteins were exclusively in the wall. Unlike VSPs, HCNCp is expressed in at least five giardial strains and four WB subclones expressing different VSPs. Bioinformatics identified 60 additional large high cysteine membrane proteins (HCMp) containing ≥20 CxxC/CxC's lacking the VSP-specific C-terminal CRGKA. HCMp were absent or rare in other model or parasite genomes, except for Tetrahymena thermophila with 30. MEME analysis classified the 61 gHCMp genes into nine groups with similar internal motifs. Our data suggest that HCNCp is a novel invariant cyst protein belonging to a new HCMp family that is abundant in the Giardia genome. HCNCp and the other HCMp provide a rich source for developing parasite-specific diagnostic reagents, vaccine candidates, and subjects for further research into Giardia biology.
© 2006 Davids et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The definitive version was published in PLoS ONE 1 (2006): e44, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000044.
The following license files are associated with this item:
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of Cdc42 GEF Gef1 by 14-3-3 protein Rad24 spatially regulates Cdc42 GTPase activity and oscillatory dynamics during cell morphogenesis Das, Maitreyi E.; Nunez, Illyce; Rodriguez, Marbelys; Wiley, David J.; Rodriguez, Juan; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Buchwald, Peter; Verde, Fulvia (American Society for Cell Biology, 2015-08-05)Active Cdc42 GTPase, a key regulator of cell polarity, displays oscillatory dynamics that are anticorrelated at the two cell tips in fission yeast. Anticorrelation suggests competition for active Cdc42 or for its effectors. ...
The mate recognition protein gene mediates reproductive isolation and speciation in the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex Gribble, Kristin E.; Mark Welch, David B. (BioMed Central, 2012-08-01)Chemically mediated prezygotic barriers to reproduction likely play an important role in speciation. In facultatively sexual monogonont rotifers from the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex, mate recognition of ...
Lauwaet, Tineke; Davids, Barbara J.; Torres-Escobar, Ascencion; Birkeland, Shanda R.; Cipriano, Michael J.; Preheim, Sarah P.; Palm, Daniel; Svard, Staffan G.; McArthur, Andrew G.; Gillin, Frances D. (2006-12-06)The ability of Giardia lamblia to undergo two distinct differentiations in response to physiologic stimuli is central to its pathogenesis. The giardial cytoskeleton changes drastically during encystation and excystation. ...