The electrical field induced by ocean currents and waves, with applications to the method of towed electrodes
Longuet-Higgins, M. S.
Stern, Melvin E.
Stommel, Henry M.
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The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of the electrical field induced in the ocean by particular types of velocity distribution. It is believed that these examples will be helpful in the interpretation of measurements by towed electrodes in the sea. The electrical field induced by waves and tidal streams, originally predicted by Faraday (1832), was first measured experimentally by Young, Gerrard and Jevons (1920), who used both moored and towed electrodes in their observations. Recently, the technique of towed electrodes has been developed by von Arx (1950, 1951) and others into a useful means of detecting water movements in the deep ocean. While the method has been increasingly used, the problem of interpreting the measurements in terms of water movements has become of great importance. Two of the present authors have made theoretical studies (Longuet-Higgins 1949, Stommel 1948) dealing with certain cases of velocity fields, and Malkus and Stern (1952) have proved some important integral theorems. There seems, however, to be a need for a more extended discussion of the principles underlying the method, and for the computation of additional illustrative examples. This is all the more desirable since some of the theoretical discussions published previously have been misleading.
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